Advanced wheat production technologies

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Wheat production technologies advanced, when and how to sow

Farmers begin preparing for Rabi crops after harvesting Kharif crops. Wheat is one of the key Rabi crops. Farmers can receive good yields by paying attention to a few details.

In the previous four decades, India has made significant progress in wheat production. Wheat production has risen from 12.26 million tonnes in 1964-65 to 107.18 million tonnes in 2019-20, a new high. The output and productivity of wheat must be continuously increased to offer food and nutritional security to India’s people.

According to estimates, India’s population will be over 1.4 billion people by 2025. With a wheat demand of around 117 million tonnes. It will be necessary to develop new technologies to reach this goal. New kinds can be developed and tested under high fertility circumstances to achieve maximum production capacity.

The northern Ganges-Indus plains are the country’s most fertile and wheat-producing regions. Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan (excluding Kota and Udaipur divisions), western Uttar Pradesh, Terai region of Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kathua districts of Jammu and Kashmir, and Una district and Paonta valley of Himachal Pradesh are the key wheat-producing states in this region.

Wheat is grown on an area of approximately 12.33 million hectares in this region, yielding approximately 57.83 million tonnes of wheat. The average wheat productivity in this region is around 44.50 QTL/ha, but using the recommended wheat technologies in the front line wheat demonstrations conducted on farmers’ fields can result in a yield of 51.85 QTL/ha.

Since the previous few years, improved wheat varieties HD 3086 and HD 2967 have been widely cultivated in this area, but replacement with high yielding potential and disease-resistant cultivars DBW 187, DBW 222, and HD 3226, among others, has been highly advertised.

Choose these enhanced species for increased output

In wheat cultivation, variety selection is critical because yield is determined by it. Choose innovative, disease-resistant, and high-yielding types wherever possible. DBW 303, WH 1270, PBW 723 can be sown for irrigated and early sowing, while DBW 173, DBW 71, PBW 771, WH 1124, DBW 90, and HD 3059 can be sown for irrigated and late sowing. The HD 3298 cultivar, on the other hand, has been recognised as a delayed sowing variation. For restricted irrigation and timely seeding, the WH 1142 variety might be used.

When to sow, how much to sow, and how much fertiliser to use

The fertility of the soil is increased by applying 4-6 tonnes of cow dung per acre when preparing the land 15-20 days before growing wheat. The table shows the recommended planting time, seed rate, and chemical fertilisers for the northern Ganges-Indus plains.

Watered and seeded promptly

Duration

(from the 25th of October to the 15th of November)

Amount of seed

100 kg seeds per hectare

Fertilizer

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the ratio of 150:60:40 kg/ha. A third of the nitrogen is applied at the time of sowing, another third is applied during the first irrigation, and the other third is applied during the second irrigation.

Late sowing, irrigated

Duration

(November 25th to December 25th)

Amount of seed

125 kg per hectare

Fertilizer

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the ratio of 120:60:40 kg/ha. Half of the nitrogen is applied at the time of sowing, and the balance is applied at the time of the first watering.

Seeding at a later time

Duration

(after December 25th)

Amount of seed

125 kg per hectare

Fertilizer

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the ratio of 120:60:40 kg/ha. Half of the nitrogen is applied at the time of sowing, and the balance is applied at the time of the first watering.

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High Fertility Nutritional Management

wheat

In recent years, new wheat varieties have been evaluated in high fertility circumstances by increasing manure application by 10-15 tonnes per hectare, chemical fertiliser application by one-and-a-half times, and the sowing period from October 25 to October 31. Trials were carried out between them, and the results were very encouraging. At 40 and 75 days after sowing wheat, two times the growth inhibitor chlormequat (0.2) + propiconol (0.1) was sprayed to block vegetative growth and induce greater vegetative growth in these trials. Due to high growth, the wheat crop can be spared from dropping.

Sowing with a turbo happy seeder and zero tillage

In a paddy-wheat cropping system, sowing wheat with zero tillage is a practical and lucrative strategy. Wheat is sown without ploughing with a zero-till drill machine, utilising the moisture in the soil that has been conserved after paddy harvesting. This machine is proving to be quite useful in areas where paddy harvesting is delayed. This equipment is also quite useful in flooded areas. It is the most effective and efficient way to manage paddy crop residue. This type of wheat planting produces an equivalent or greater yield than conventional sowing, and the crop does not fall. The moisture in the root zone of the plants is sustained for a longer time when crop leftovers are kept on the surface, thus the increase in temperature has no negative impact on yield and weeds are minimised.

Irrigation control is critical in wheat production

For a high yield, the wheat crop requires 5-6 irrigations. Irrigation should be done according to the amount of water available, the kind of soil, and the needs of the plants. Irrigation is required throughout three stages of the wheat crop’s life cycle: Chanderi rooting (21 days), initial knot formation (65 days), and grain formation (85 days). If enough water is available for irrigation, the first irrigation should be done after 21 days, followed by five irrigations spaced 20 days apart.

New irrigation methods, such as spray irrigation or seepage irrigation, are also suited for wheat cultivation. They’ve been utilised in low-water areas for a long time. However, even in locations where water is abundant, these strategies can be used to store water and provide a high yield. The Central and State Governments also provide grants in the form of subsidies for certain irrigation techniques. Farmers should also use these programmes to meet their national responsibility for irrigation water management.

Control of weeds

Apply Clodinafop 15 WP 160 gm or Finoxaden 5 EC 400 ml or Finoxaprop 10 EC 400 ml per acre to suppress narrow leaf weeds (Mandusi/Kanaki/Gulli danda, wild oats, fox grass) in wheat crops. If wide leaf weeds (Bathua, Kharbathu, Wild Spinach, Myna, Maitha, Sonchal/Malwa, Makoy, Hirankhuri, Kandai, Krishnanil, Pyaji, Chatri-Matri) are a concern, Metsulfuron 20 WP 8 gm or Carfentrazone 40 WDG 20 gm are recommended. Alternatively, apply 2,4 D 38 EC at a rate of 500 ml per acre. Make a solution in 120-150 litres of water and spray all weedicides/herbicides 30-35 days after sowing with a flat fan nozzle. Spray broadleaf herbicide after narrow-leaf herbicide if there are mixed weeds. Apply Piroxasulfone 85WDG 60 gm/acre shortly after sowing to control multi herbicide-resistant mites.

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Pest Control and Disease Management

Only use disease and pest resistant types that have been approved. Use a well-balanced nitrogen fertiliser. To control seed-borne infestations, use certified seed. Carboxy (75 WP) or Carbendazim (50 WP) at 2.5 g/kg should be used to treat the seeds. Spraying with a 0.1 per cent (1.0 ml / l) solution of propiconazole (25 EC) or tebuconazole should be done once yellow rust disease has been confirmed (250 EC). Dissolve 200 ccs of the medicine in 200 litres of water and spray one acre of land. Re-spraying at a 15-20-day interval if necessary, depending on the incidence and spread of the disease.

If powdery acetic disease symptoms are present, a spray of 0.1 per cent (1.0 ml/l) Leu propiconazole (25 EC) should be used at the time of plant seedling. Spraying 0.1 per cent (1.0 ml/l) of medicine called propiconazole (25 EC) at the time of earbuds can help manage karnal bunts. When the number of Oahu reaches the economic damage level, spray Imidacloprid 200 SL (17.8: w/w) @ 40 ml/acre (ETL 10-15 mahu per shoot).

Harvesting and storing in the proper manner

Harvesting, threshing, and milling can be done simultaneously with the combined harvester. When the wheat grains become hard after-ripening and the moisture content is less than 20%. Using the most recent high producing varieties, yields of 70-80 quintals/ha can be produced. Before storing the grains, make sure they’re completely dry, with an average moisture content of 10-12 per cent. By segregating the broken and disfigured grains, medium insect damage can be avoided. Bins (silos and cisterns) made of GI sheets should be used to store grain. Also, one tablet of aluminium phosphide should be kept in around 10 quintals of grain to keep insects at bay.

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