This summer, do advanced gourd cultivation
In the pumpkin vegetable category, gourd takes first place. Its green fruits are used to make desserts, raita, kofte, kheer, and other dishes. Its leaves, stems, and pulp are used to make a variety of medications. The dried shell of the gourd was often used to fill bottles with wine or spirits, hence the name “bottle guard.”
The cultivation of bottle gourd necessitates a hot and humid atmosphere. Summer and wet seasons are the best times to plant them. It is completely intolerant of frost.
It can be grown on various types of ground, however light loamy fields with fossils and adequate water storage capacity are recommended for optimal production. It can also be grown in some acidic environments. Ploughing should be done twice with a soil turning plow and three times with a hammer or cultivar.
This type can be sown in June or December and produces 280 quintals per hectare, making it appropriate for growing in saline, alkaline, and marginal soils.
It may be grown in both the Kharif and Zaid seasons. After 120 days, the fruit can be harvested. Its output varies between 400 and 450 quintals per acre.
Pusa Summer Prolific Round
It’s an early cultivar. Its vines are spreading and growing faster. When the fruit is soft and unripe, it grows to a height of 15 to 18 cm. Up to a certain point, there are light green circles. It’s appropriate for both the spring and summer seasons.
Goal for Punjab
This cultivar has highly branching plants. It’s also a high-yielding cultivar. The fruits are bright, round, and sensitive. It is possible to sow it in the spring. Its yield per hectare is 175 quintals.
Summer Prolific Lag in Pusa
This type can be grown in both the summer and the rainy seasons. Its vine grows well and bears a large number of fruits. Its fruit is 40 to 45 centimeters tall and 15 to 22 centimeters wide. There are circles with a light green color to them. The yield per hectare is 150 quintals.
In Faizabad, it is a well-developed species. On average, each plant produces 1012 fruits. The fruits are thin and bottle-shaped, with a white pulp toward the stalk and a yield of about 300 quintals per hectare.
Its fruits are 600 grams in weight on average and are sown in both seasons. In 60-65 days, it begins to bear fruit and yields 300 QTL per acre.
Pusa Hybrid 3 is a cross between a Pusa and a Pusa
Green, long, and straight fruits are produced. The fruits have a lovely green color and weigh one kilogram. It has a crop that can be harvested in both seasons. The yield of this hybrid cultivar is 425 QTL per hectare. In 60-65 days, the fruits begin to appear.
It is a hybrid variety with gorgeous green fruits and a yield of 400-450 quintals per hectare, making it a commercially viable variety.
Fertilizers and manures
It is more cost-effective to apply manure and fertilizer after having the soil tested; however, if soil testing is not possible, manure and fertilizer should be applied at a rate of per hectare.
20–30 tons of dung manure
50 kg nitrogen
40 kg Sphur
40 kg potash
The dung manure should be plowed evenly using a tractor or bakhar or earth-turning plow before the initial plowing of the land. At the time of the last plowing, a mixture of half the amount of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potash should be made and applied to the soil. When 4 to 5 leaves emerge two times, the remaining nitrogen should be divided into two equal parts, and four plants should be given by top dressing at the time of flowering.
Time to sow
- For the summer harvest, the months of January through March are ideal.
- Crops for the wet season are harvested between June and July.
- 1.5 m row-to-row distance A 1.0 m plant-to-plant distance
Amount of seeds
46.6 kg per acre for the harvest from January to March
For the June to July crop, 34 kilograms per hectare is recommended.
Crop irrigation in the summer is necessary every 45 days, whereas crop irrigation in the rainy season is required only when there is no rain. In the winter, irrigation should be done every 10 to 15 days.
With the gourd crop comes a slew of weeds. As a result, 2 to 3 times in January to March crop and 3 times in June to July crop are recommended for their prevention. Perform humiliation four times.
Red Pumpkin Beetle
Red is the color of the adult bug. The caterpillar’s body is pale yellow, with a brownish-red head. The adult of this insect’s second species is black. When two leaves grow on the plants, the epidemic of this bug begins. This insect consumes the leaves and blossoms of the plants in the ground, and the larva of this insect bites the roots of the plants.
- Weeding should be done to keep the field tidy.
- Deep plowing of the fields should be done after harvesting to allow insects and eggs hiding in the ground to come to the surface and be destroyed by the heat of the sun or birds.
- In the morning, insects are dormant. As a result, eliminate the insects in the fields at this time by catching them with a hand/net.
- Carbofuran 3 percent granular is applied 3 to 4 cm near the plant’s base at a rate of 7 kilograms per acre. Apply water after applying granular pesticide into the soil.
- When the number of adult insects is high, Dichlorvas 76 EC is used. Spray at a rate of 300 ml per acre.
The fruit fly
The adult of the bug is similar to a housefly in color, being reddish-brown or yellowish-brown. On its head, there are black or white markings. Fruit fly caterpillars are filthy white, have a pointed vein, and have no legs. The female bug pierces the soft fruits and lays her eggs within the peel. The caterpillars emerge from the egg and consume the fruit’s pulp, causing the fruit to perish. This bug is particularly prevalent in the rainy season.
- Fruits that have been damaged or fallen should be discarded.
- It is necessary to flip the fruits or vegetables that are growing on the ground from time to time.
- – Use of venomous entices Spraying a mild medication solution dries it up rapidly, making adult fly control impossible. As a result, a sweet, scented sticky component must be added to the pesticide solution. Malathion 50 EC for the 50 miles. Dissolve 500 grams of molasses or jaggery in 50 liters of water and sprinkle it on top. If necessary, spray again after a week.
- In the field, plant a maize or linen crop in the form of a Prasanthi crop. This bug is drawn to these crops and rests there. Resting flies can be efficiently eliminated by spraying poison lures on such crops.
Powdery mildew of the gourd’s main illnesses
Fungus is to blame for this illness. On the leaves and stems, white dots and circular webs develop, which eventually grow and turn brown in hue. The entire leaf becomes yellow and dries up, and the plant’s growth comes to a halt.
- Remove and destroy the infected plant.
- Fungicides containing soluble sulfur, such as Carathane 2 percent or Sulphex 0.3 percent, should be used every 10–15 days as soon as the first indications of the disease occur.
The disease can strike at any stage of the plant’s development. If the illness attacks a fresh plant, the section of the stem connecting to the plant’s surface thaws, and the plant dies. The seed may be damaged by decaying before germination as a result of the disease’s action.
The disease’s main symptom is the withering and hanging of old leaves, which appears to be due to a lack of water when there is plenty of moisture in the field and the edges of the leaves become burned. When the temperature is hot, such symptoms are more visible throughout the day. When the vine of such sickly dead plants is cut vertically, the conducting tissue turns brown.
Read more : Jowar and Bajra seed production technique
Management of disease
Due to the disease’s seedy and soilless nature, seed treatment at a rate of 2.5 mg per kg of seed is used to manage it, and long-term crop rotation is required.
Fruits ripen at different rates depending on their species. When the fruit is fully matured, it should be cut from the plant using a sharp knife at a sensitive stage.
Crops per hectare yield 200 to 250 quintals in June-July and 100 to 150 quintals in January-March, respectively.