Sunflower Cultivation | Sunflower Farming in INDIA | 2022 Sunflower Price
Details relating Sunflower Farming (सूरजमुखी की खेती)
Sunflower grow as an oilseed crop. It is also known as a cash crop since it can generate more money by selling both the blooms and seeds that come from its plants. Oil is taken from the seeds and used as a medicine; when the oil is extracted, the residual seeds are used for poultry and animal feed. Although sunflowers are said to have originated in America, sunflower cultivation is now practiced all over the world.
It is grown in several states in India, and it takes three to four months for the plants to mature. Its crop can be harvested in all three seasons of the year: Kharif, Zayed, and Rabi. Important information about the pricing of sunflowers in 2021 is being provided.
Sunflower Cultivation Suitable Soil, Climate and Temperature (सूरजमुखी की खेती के लिए उपयुक्त मिट्टी, जलवायु और तापमान)
Sunflowers grow best on sandy loam soil with good drainage. Apart from that, it can be grown in a variety of soil types. The pH of the land when it is being cultivated. The value should be in the range of 5 to 7. Sunflower may be grown in all three seasons, however the Rabi and Zayed seasons are regarded the best for this crop. During this time, very few illnesses affect its plants, resulting in a high yield.
Because its seeds do not germinate well in high temperatures, a temperature of 15 degrees is required while transplanting its seeds. Flowering requires a normal temperature during plant growth and a dry atmosphere.
Sunflower Improved Varieties (सूरजमुखी की उन्नत किस्में)
There are numerous enhanced sunflower cultivars on the market, which are primarily split into two categories. The first complex and the second hybrid species can both be found here. Whose details are as follows:-
Cluster Species (संकुल प्रजाति )
This is a very rare species grown by farmers, because the plants in it are small, and the yield is also less. Mardan and Surya are the main varieties of this species, which are considered suitable for cultivation.
This kind of plant takes 90 days to reach full maturity. After that, the plants can reach a height of three feet. The seeds of this plant have a 40% oil content. Its plants are thought to be appropriate for multi-cropped environments.
Surya plants are ready to ripen 80 to 85 days after the seeds have been transplanted. It grows to be 3 to 4 feet tall when fully developed. It is sown for late-season variety. This variety has a yield of 12 quintals per hectare.
Hybrid species (संकर प्रजाति)
Farmer brothers prefer hybrid varieties since they produce a higher yield than complex varieties. The length of the plants that emerge from it is also observed to be greater. SH 3322, SH-1, and FSH-17 are the most common variants of this species.
This variety’s plants require 90 to 95 days to mature, yielding up to 25 quintals and seeds with up to 40% oil content.
This type is planted as a late crop, which means the plants take 90 days to mature. Its plants grow to be up to 5 feet tall, yielding 30 quintals per hectare.
This sunflower type takes 90 days to mature, and the plants can grow up to 5 feet tall. Oil content of 35 to 40% is collected from its seeds. The yield of this variety is 25 quintals per hectare.
Sunflower Field Preparation(सूरजमुखी के खेत की तैयारी )
Prepare the land by cultivating it properly and applying the appropriate amount of fertilizer before sowing sunflower seeds. The first step is to plough the land deeply. After plowing, the field is kept open for a period of time, allowing the soil to be exposed to sun rays. After that, around 15 days before sowing the seeds in the field, 10 to 15 carts of old cow dung manure should be plowed onto a one-hectare field, which will ensure that the manure is fully incorporated into the soil.
Sunflower fields demand a lot of moisture, so make sure you water them and plow them. After that, use a rotavator to plow the field and have it plowed again, causing the soil to become friable. sprinkle N.P.K. fertilizer of Appropriate amount at the time of the last plowing of the field Aside from that, sunflower plants require gypsum, which requires 80 kg of gypsum per acre in the field.
Sunflower Seeds Planting Right time and Method (सूरजमुखी के बीजों की रोपाई का सही समय और तरीका)
Sunflower seeds should be planted in meadows because sowing them on flat land yields a lower yield. As a result, the bund should be created in the field before planting the seed. Between these generated meadows, there must be a space of 25 to 30 cm. Seeds are planted at a distance of 15 cm and a depth of 4 cm in meadows. Before being planted in the field, these seeds are kept in water for 10 hours and then dried in the shade for two hours.
The seeds are then replanted after being treated with the proper dose of Bavistin or Thiram. In a one-acre field, 4-5 KG seeds of complicated types and 3 KG seeds of hybrid kinds are required. The month of February is regarded the best for sowing sunflower seeds, but late sowing reduces yield.
Sunflower Plant Irrigation (सूरजमुखी के पौधे की सिंचाई)
Sunflower plants demand additional watering. As a result, the first irrigation must be done as soon as the seeds are sown. Its seeds require moisture to germinate, which necessitates light irrigation in its field. After seed germination, its plants only require 4 to 5 irrigations. However, when the blooms begin to develop grains on the plants, administer water as needed to maintain the moisture level in the field.
Sunflower Plants Weed Control (सूरजमुखी के पौधों में खरपतवार नियंत्रण)
Weed management in sunflower plants is accomplished using both natural and chemical means. Weeding is used to control weeds in a natural way. It must be weeded for the first time 20 to 25 days after sowing the seeds. Aside from that, sunflower plants require two to three further weeding’s spaced 15 to 20 days apart. Pendimethalin 30 EC is used to manage weeds using a chemical approach. After two days of spreading the seeds in the field, an appropriate volume of spray should be applied.
Read more : Why Micro irrigation is significant for India
Sunflower Plants Diseases and Prevention (सूरजमुखी के पौधों में लगने वाले रोग एवं उनकी रोकथाम)
scorch and leaf spot
The early stages of this illness can be visible on the plants. Yellow and light brown dots emerge on the leaves of plants infected with this disease. An suitable dosage of Mancozeb 2.0 is sprayed on the plants to prevent this disease.
This sort of disease affects the lower surface of the plant’s leaves. When plants are infected with rust rust disease, red-brown spots emerge on their leaves, and the disease spreads to the stems. Spraying an appropriate dose of Mancozeb 2.0 on the affected area can help to avoid the disease.
Sunflower Plants Fertilization(सूरजमुखी के पौधों परिषेचन की क्रिया )
Because sunflower is a mixed crop, fertilizer is required for its plants. Bees carry out this detoxifying procedure in a natural way. If this is not possible, the process can be completed by rotating a woolen cloth around the flowers early in the morning while wearing it. The crop yield is good as a result of this action.
Sunflower Crop Harvesting, Yield and Benefits(सूरजमुखी के फसल की कटाई, पैदावार और लाभ )
Sunflower plants require 90 days to reach full maturity. Its blossoms are then plundered. After the flowers have been harvested, they are collected and dried in a shady location. The seeds are extracted from the blooms by the machine once they have dried. Its one-acre crop produces about 20 to 25 quintals of fruit. Sunflower costs Rs.4,000 per quintal on the market. As a result, farming brothers can easily make up to one lakh in a fraction of the time it takes to harvest a single crop.