Sesame Cultivation: Improved Varieties and How To Farm Sesame

Spread the love

Sesame Cultivation: What You Should Know, Improved Sesame Varieties, And How To Farm Sesame

Keep these ideas in mind when growing crops, and you’ll make a lot of money

Sesame is a crucial component of oilseed crops. Sesame harvesting can be done three times a year. It is a cash crop for farmers since the market need is steady. Its popularity peaks in the winter. Sesame seeds are used to make a variety of sweets, such as gajak and laddus. Aside from that, sesame oil is extracted, which has the biggest market demand. As a result, sesame production is extremely beneficial to farmers. Farmers can earn more profit by increasing sesame production if certain factors are addressed. Today, through Tractor Junction, we are providing farmers with knowledge on sesame growing. So, let’s learn about sesame cultivation’s superior technique.

Sesame seeds have a lot of health benefits.

  • Sesame seeds are high in protein and important amino acids, particularly methionine, which aids in the prevention of ageing.
  • Linoleic acid, vitamins E, A, B, B-2, and niacin, as well as minerals like calcium and phosphorus, are all found in sesame seeds.
  • Sesame oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids, which lower cholesterol and help prevent coronary heart disease.
  • Because of its skin-protecting and other cosmetic characteristics, sesame oil is known as the “Queen of Oils.”
  • Sesame can help with dental problems. Gums are healthy and teeth are robust after chewing 10 grammes black sesame seeds every morning and consuming them thoroughly.
  • Sesame improves vision and relieves phlegm, arthritis, oedema, pain, and discomfort.
  • Sesame oil massage is beneficial for acne and skin disorders. Skin disorders can be cured by combining neem leaves with oil.

In which parts of the country is sesame grown?

Maharashtra, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Telangana are among the states that grow sesame. The majority of these sesame is grown in Uttar Pradesh’s Bundelkhand region.

Sesame cultivars that have been improved

There are numerous improved sesame cultivars available, all of which produce high yields. The following are the enhanced varieties:

Tkg 308

In the year 2008, this variety was produced. This variety takes 80-85 days to reach full maturity. This cultivar is capable of producing 600-700 kg per hectare. This cultivar has a high oil content of 48-50 per cent. This sesame cultivar is resistant to stem and root rot.

JT-11 (PKDS-11)

In the year 2008, the sesame variety JT-11 (PKDS-11) was also released. This cultivar takes 82-85 days to mature. This allows for the output of up to 650-700 kg per hectare. It has a 46-50 per cent oil content. It has a light brown tint to it. This sesame cultivar is resistant to Macrophomina disease. This cultivar is recommended for growing during the summer months.

JT-12(PKDS-12)

This sesame variety was introduced in 2008. This cultivar takes 82-85 days to mature. This cultivar may produce between 650 and 700 kg per acre. The amount of oil found in this type is 50-53. Macrophomina disease tolerance is high in the sesame variety. This sesame type is thought to be best suited for growing in the summer.

306 Jawahar Til

In 2004, the Jawahar 306 sesame variety was produced. This cultivar takes 86-90 days to mature. This type may produce a yield of 700-900 kg per acre. It has a 52 per cent oil content. Plant rot, Cercospora leaf spot, Bhabhutia, and Phylodi disease are all resistant to this type.

JTS 8

This sesame variety was introduced in the year 2000. This variety grows and is ripe in 86 days. This cultivar is capable of producing 600-700 kg per hectare. It contains 52 per cent oil. Phytophthora blight, Alternaria leaf spot, and bacterial blight disease are all resistant to this sesame variety.

tkg 55

This sesame variety was first introduced in 1998. This cultivar takes 76-78 days to mature. This variety may provide a yield of 630 kg per hectare. It’s made up of 53% oil. This sesame variety is resistant to Phytophthora blight and Macrophomina stem and root rot.

Time to plant sesame

til , sesame

Sesame can be grown three times a year. It is sown in July in Kharif and should be sown in the semi-rabi from the latter week of August to the first week of September. It can be sown from the second week of January to the second week of February for a summer crop.

Read more : Cultivate turmeric in this manner to generate more profit

Sesame farming climate and soil

Sesame thrives in a moderate climate. Its crop is suffering as a result of extreme rain or drought. On the other hand, if we’re talking about the soil, light and loamy land are ideal. This crop thrives in soil with a pH range of 5.5 to 8.2. Aside from that, it is also grown on black sandy loam soil.

Sesame cultivation field preparation

Keep in mind that there should be no weeds in the field when preparing it for sesame cultivation. After the weeds have been entirely removed from the field, plough the land for the first time with soil turning plough. After that, make the soil friable by applying pat in the field after two or three ploughings with a cultivator or country plough. Add 80 to 100 quintals of decomposed cow manure to the last ploughing at the same time.

Sesame Cultivation Seed Rate and Seed Treatment

When distributing sesame seeds, seed quantities of 1.6-3.80 per acre should be kept in mind. Simultaneously, a seed drill should be used for row planting, with a sufficient seed rate of 1-1.20 kg per acre. In a mixed system, the seed rate of sesame should not exceed one kilogramme per acre. Treatment with 2.5 gm Thiram or Captan per kilogramme of seed is recommended to avoid infections.

Sesame sowing method/sesame sowing method

Sesame seeds are typically sown by sprinkling. When sesame is sown by sprinkling, there is an issue with weeding and hoeing. As a result, it’s better to plant it in rows. On the one hand, this makes weeding and hoeing easier, while on the other side, the yield increases. Seeds should be sown in a 1:20 ratio with sand, dry soil, or well-rotted manure for uniform dispersion. The seeds should be spread at a depth of around 3 cm, keeping the row to row and plant to plant distances 30×10 cm.

Application of Manure and Fertilizer in Sesame Cultivation

At the time of the last ploughing, 80 to 100 quintals of decomposed cow dung should be mixed in with the field preparation. In addition, per hectare, 30 kg nitrogen, 15 kg phosphorus, and 25 kg sulphur should be applied. At the time of sowing, half of the nitrogen and the whole amount of phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur should be applied as base manure, and half of the nitrogen should be applied to the standing crop at the time of initial weeding and hoeing.

Sesame cultivation irrigation work

During the rainy season, the sesame crop requires less irrigation. If there isn’t any rain, irrigation should be carried out as needed. Once the sesame crop is 50 to 60% ready, single irrigation is required. If there isn’t any rain, irrigation should be carried out as needed.

Weeding in sesame plantations

The sesame crop has been infested with weeds. After 15 to 20 days of sowing, the first weeding should be completed. Weeding should be done again after 30 to 35 days. Thinning or rarefaction should be done at this time to make the gap between the plants 10 to 12 cm during weeding and hoeing. Elaclor 50 EC, on the other hand, is used to manage weeds. Within 2-3 days of sowing, 1.25 litres per acre should be applied.

Controlling disease in the sesame crop

Philodi and Phytophthora blight disease cause the biggest harm to the sesame crop. For philodi prevention, sow 10 g in the trough at the time of sowing. 15 kg of Methyl-O-Dimetan 25 EC should be used at a rate of 1 litre, and 3 kg of copper oxychloride or Mancozeb at a rate of 2.5 kg per hectare should be sprayed 2-3 times as needed to avoid Phytophthora scorch.

Sesame Crop Pest Control Measures

Sesame crops have a higher prevalence of leaf wrapper and pod borer insects. Qunalphas 25 EC is used to eradicate certain pests. Apply 1.25 litres of 2 percent Methyl Parathion powder at a rate of 25 kg per hectare.

Harvesting sesame

When the sesame leaves begin to turn yellow and fall, and the leaves become yellow with a green tint, the crop is ripe and ready to harvest. Following that, the tree should be harvested from the bottom up. Bundles should be produced and put in small piles at various locations throughout the field after harvesting. When the plants are totally dry, the seeds should be removed by lightly sweeping or beating them with a stick or stick.

Yield obtained

With appropriate crop management, sesame can yield 400-480 kg in the irrigated stage. Under irrigated conditions with enough rainfall, a yield of 200-250 kg per acre is obtained.

Sesame market price

Sesame has a minimum price of Rs.9025 and a maximum price of Rs.9700 in the market in January 2022, with a model rate of Rs.9100.

MSP 2022 Sesame

The Central Government has set the minimum support price for sesame at Rs 7307 for the financial year 2021-22. The MSP for sesame has been enhanced by Rs 452 this time by the government. Let us remind you that the minimum support price of sesame in the fiscal year 2020-21 was 6855.

 

A question and an answer about sesame farming

Question 1: When is the optimum time to plant sesame seeds?

Answer – During the rainy season, the month of July is ideal for sesame production. It can, however, be grown three times a year.

Question 2: What improved sesame kinds are available?

Answer – T.K.G. for sesame cultivation. 308, JT-11 (PKDS-11), JT-12 (PKDS-12), Jawahar Til 306, JTS. 8, T.K.G. 55 etc.

Question 3: A pod borer insect outbreak has occurred in the sesame crop. Tell me what the solution is.

Answer – Leaf wrapper and pod borer are more common in sesame crops. Qunalphas 25 EC is used to eradicate certain pests. Apply 1.25 litres of 2 percent Methyl Parathion powder at a rate of 25 kg per hectare.

Question 4: When the sesame crop is ready, how long does it take?

Answer – The sesame crop takes 85-90 days to mature (short duration). As a result, the farmer can plant other crops in addition to it.

Question 5: What is the best time to harvest the sesame crop?

Answer- When sesame leaves become yellow and fall to the ground, and the leaves turn yellow with a green tint, the crop is mature and ready. It should then be harvested. Sesame should be chopped down at the same time as the tree.

Leave a Comment