Rajasthan’s Agriculture and Crops
Before independence, agriculture was the backbone of Rajasthan’s economy. Agriculture and animal husbandry employ around 70% of Rajasthan’s entire working population, both directly and indirectly. Agriculture and related industries provide for over 52 percent of Rajasthan’s total revenue. Rajasthan accounts for 10.2% of India’s total agricultural land. The Kharif season sees the sowing of 2/3 of Rajasthan’s total cultivated land. Rajasthan’s overall agricultural area is irrigated to the tune of 32.4 percent.
Wheat, barley, rice, maize, bajra, jowar, rabi, and Kharif pulses are all grown in Rajasthan.
- Rajasthan is India’s fourth-largest wheat producer. The state produces 8% of the total wheat produced in India.
- Wheat is the Rabi crop that is grown in the biggest quantity and the most irrigated area in Rajasthan.
- Wheat is the most widely produced food grain crop in the state.
- At the time of sowing wheat, the temperature should be between 8 and 10 degrees Celsius. During the period of ripening, the temperature should be between 15 and 20 degrees Celsius. It ought to be until
- 50 centimeters It is necessary to keep a distance of 100 cm between you and the rain.
- Rajasthan produces the most common wheat (Triticum) and macaroni wheat (red wheat).
- Wheat production is concentrated in the districts of Jaipur, Alwar, Kota, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, and Sawai Madhopur in East and South-East Rajasthan.
- Because the Ganganagar district produces the most wheat in Rajasthan, it is known as the “food storage.”
- Wheat may be grown on nitrogen-rich loamy soil, fine trembling soil, and Chika-dominant soil. The pH level of the soil should be between 5 and 7.5.
- Durgapura-65, Kalyan Sona, Mexican, Sonera, Sharbati, Kohinoor, Sonalika, Ganga Sunhari, Mangla, Carnia-65, Lal Bahadur, Chambal-65, Rajasthan-3077, and other types are sown in Rajasthan.
- Wheat illnesses include Buttermilk, Karjawa, Rust, and Chepa.
- India Mix is wheat, maize, and soybean flour blend.
- Gauchani is flour made from wheat, barley, and gram.
- Rajasthan has roughly 2.5 lakh hectares of barley production.
- Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan is the second-largest producer of barley after.
- Rajasthan produces a quarter of India’s entire output.
- Barley is a Rabi crop that grows in temperate climates.
- At the time of seeding barley, the temperature was around 10°C. Temperature is essential, and it should be between 20 and 22 degrees Celsius while cutting.
- A dry and sandy mixed loamy soil is ideal for barley.
- Jyoti, RS-6, Rajkiran, R.D.- 2503, RS-6, Molva, and other notable barley varieties include Jyoti, RS-6, Rajkiran, R.D.- 2503, RS-6, and Molva.
- Jaipur (the highest), Udaipur, Alwar, Bhilwara, and Ajmer are the primary barley-producing areas in Rajasthan.
- Bread, diabetes treatment, wine and beer production, and the malt sector all require barley.
- The origins of millet are said to be in Africa.
- India produces the majority of the world’s millet.
- Rajasthan is India’s leading producer of Bajra and has the largest Bajra acreage.
- Rajasthan produces nearly a third of the millet in the country.
- Bajra is the most often planted Kharif crop in Rajasthan.
- Millet thrives in a dry climate. In May, June, and July, bajra is planted.
- When seeding Bajra, the temperature should be between 35 and 40 degrees Celsius.
- Millet grows to a height of 50 cm. It is preferable to have less rainfall. Bajra thrives in a variety of soil types, including sandy, barren, desert, and semi-loamy.
- ICTP-8203, WCC-75, Rajasthan-171, RHB-30, RHB-58, RHB-911, and Rajasthan Bajra Chari-2 are the most common Bajra kinds.
- Millet is harmed by jogia, green ear, kandua, and other dry diseases.
- When the gum (Arakat) is sprayed on the millet crop, it turns poisonous, resulting in abortion, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Barmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Jaipur, Bikaner, Karauli, and Jaisalmer are among the key Bajra producing districts.
- The Central Government has relocated the All India Coordinated Millet Improvement Project and the Millet Directorate from Poona and Chennai to Jodhpur and Jaipur, respectively. Bikaner and Jodhpur have each received a new center.
- Rajasthan produces 1/8 of India’s total maize production.
- Maize is mostly grown during the Kharif season.
- Maize thrives in hot, humid environments.
- The average temperature at the time of maize sowing should be between 21 and 27 degrees Celsius.
- Maize is planted at a height of 50 cm. starting at 80 cm Until rain is needed.
- Loamy soil is better for maize because it contains more nitrogen and organic matter.
- After wheat, rice, and jowar, maize is the fourth most popular food grain in Rajasthan.
- Mahi Kanchan, Mahi Dhaval, Savita (hybrid variety), Navjot, Ganga-2, Ganga-11, Ageti-76, Kiran, and other maize types are popular.
- Udaipur (most), Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, and Banswara are the major maize-producing districts in Rajasthan.
- Maize green leaves are used to make silage fodder.
- According to agricultural specialists, 80 percent of the maize plant’s development takes place at night.
- Borwar hamlet in Banswara district is home to the Agricultural Research Center. Even during the Rabi season, the Banswara Agricultural Research Center is credited with popularising maize production in southern Rajasthan. The Mahi Kanchan and Mahi Dhawal maize cultivars were produced at this institution.
- Maize grains are used to make mandi (starch), glucose, and alcohol.
- The main food grain in the Mewar region is maize.
- In India, rice is the most widely grown food grain. The state of West Bengal is India’s leading rice producer.
- Rice is a plant that grows in tropical climates. The temperature should be between 20 and 27 degrees Celsius, with a height of 125 to 200 cm. Rainfall is necessary every year.
- Rice grows well on loamy, loamy, clay soils.
- In Rajasthan, rice is being grown using the Japanese method.
- Kaveri, Jaya, Parmal, Chambal, Gardabasmati, NP-130, BK-190, T-29, Safeda and Lakda, Mahi Sugandha are the main rice types (developed by Agricultural Research Center, Banswara).
- Banswara, Bundi, Hanumangarh, Baran, Kota, Udaipur, and Ganganagar are the primary rice-producing districts of Rajasthan.
- Only two districts in Rajasthan produce half of the state’s rice: Banswara and Hanumangarh.
- The district of Hanumangarh in Rajasthan produces the most rice per hectare.
- Jowar is a tropical Kharif crop with an average temperature of 20° to 32° Celsius and a height of 50 to 60 cm. The annual rainfall is enough.
- Jowar can be sown in loamy soil, as well as deep or medium black soil.
- Rajasthan Chari-1 and Chari-2, two key kinds of jowar, have been prepared for fodder.
- Ajmer, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Bharatpur, Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, Sawai Madhopur, Alwar, Jaipur, and Tonk are the major jowar-producing districts in Rajasthan.
- Sorghum and poori ki roti are other names for jowar.
- In Rajasthan, jowar covers ten percent of the country’s entire land area.
In the Rabi season, the state’s key pulse crops are gram, peas, and lentils, while the Kharif season’s major pulse crops include Moth, Urad, Moong, Chawla, and Arhar.
Pulse crops are sown on 18% of the land in Rajasthan.
In 1974-75, the Centrally Operated Pulses Development Scheme was established to expand pulse production.
The district of Jodhpur produces the most pulses in Rajasthan.
Rajasthan is the sixth-largest producer of pulses in the country.
The Jaipur district produces the most Arhar and Tuar- Banswara, Moong- Nagaur, Moth- Barmer, Urad- Chittorgarh, Chawla- Sikar, Masoor- Bharatpur, and Matar-paneer in Rajasthan.
- Rajasthan accounts for 22.78 percent of India’s total gramme area.
- After Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan is the second-largest producer of a gramme.
- Gram is ranked third in terms of area after millet and wheat.
- The average production of gramme per hectare in Rajasthan is higher than the national average, while the average production of practically all other crops is lower.
- In Rajasthan, the production of a gramme is the greatest of all pulse crops.
- Gram is sown on the most land in the state among the Rabi pulse crops.
- When sowing gramme, the temperature should be around 20°C, and when harvesting, the temperature should be between 30° and 35°C.
- Gram grows well in light sandy soil with a depth of 50 to 85 cm. Rainfall is necessary every year.
- Gram varieties include RSG-2, BJ-209, GNG-16, RS-10, Vardan, Samrat, Kabuli, and others.
- Ganganagar, Bikaner, Sikar, Churu, Hanumangarh, and other significant gram-producing districts in Rajasthan.
- Chickpeas are used in the production of pulses, animal feed, and the malt industry.
- In the local language, sowing gramme with wheat and barley is known as Gochani or Bejhar.
- Moth is the most widely planted of the Kharif pulse crops.
- Rajasthan is the leading producer of moth in India.
- Among pulse crops, the moth is the most drought tolerant.
- Urad is a plant that grows in the tropics. This works best in loamy and heavy loamy soils.
Crops for Profit
- Sugarcane is an important commercial crop that originated in India.
- India is the world’s leading producer of sugarcane.
- Once sown, the sugarcane crop produces for three years.
- Uttar Pradesh is India’s top sugarcane producer (40 percent of the country), while Rajasthan produces only 0.04 percent of the country’s total sugarcane.
- Temperatures of 15° to 24° Celsius and a height of 100 to 200 cm are ideal for sugarcane cultivation. Rainfall is necessary every year.
- Sugarcane is grown mostly in the districts of Bundi, Udaipur, Chittorgarh, and Ganganagar in Rajasthan.
- Sugarcane has red rot disease, pyrilla, Khandwa, red cross, and other diseases.
- Cotton is a plant that originated in India. It arose during the Indus Valley Civilization period.
- Rajasthan is the eighth-largest producer of cotton in the country. India is the world’s second-largest producer of cotton.
- Cotton requires a temperature of 20° to 30° centigrade and a length of 50 to 100 cm. It’s best to plant on clay or black soil with enough annual rainfall and moisture.
- In rural Rajasthan, cotton is referred to as Baniya. It’s also known as white gold.
- Cotton is planted during May and June.
- Due to the high cold, the balbivil worm affects the cotton crop. Okra is its disease-resistant crop.
- Cotton is grown mostly in the districts of Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Ajmer, Bhilwara, Jhalawar, Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Pali, Kota, Bundi, and Jhalawar in Rajasthan.
- A cotton bale weighs 170 kilograms.
Cotton varieties planted in the state include:-
1. In Sriganganagar and Hanumangarh, Narma is sown.
2. Long fiber cotton is the most abundant in the Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts.
3. Malvi Cotton is grown in the districts of Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, and Tonk.
4. Cotton from India — This cotton is mostly grown in the districts of Udaipur, Chittorgarh, and Banswara.
5. Maruvikas (Raj.H.H.-16) was Rajasthan’s first hybrid cotton type.
6. BT Cotton- Bacillus thragensis seed transplantation (producer of special crystal protein).
With the use of bioengineering procedures, DNA is inserted into the seed’s structure. Proteins, carbohydrates, and poisons are formed from the condition of matter.
Cotton is not grown in Rajasthan’s Jaisalmer and Churu districts.
- The Portuguese introduced the tobacco plant to India around 1508.
- Temperature should be between 20 and 35 degrees Celsius, with a height of 50 to 100 centimeters for tobacco. Rainfall is necessary every year.
- Tobacco is a plant that grows in the tropics.
- In Rajasthan, there are two types of tobacco: 1. Nicotina tubecum and Nicotina tubecum Nicotina rustica is a rustic species of Nicotina.
- In Rajasthan, the Alwar district produces the most tobacco.
- Guar is used in textiles, cosmetics, and explosives manufacturing.
- The Agricultural Research Center in Durgapura (Jaipur), Rajasthan, creates better varieties to increase guar production.
- Jodhpur is home to the world’s largest guar market, as well as the world’s largest guar gum business.
- In Jodhpur, a Guar Gum Testing Lab has been built.
- Carbohydrate content in dates ranges from 70 to 75 percent.
- Alkalinity tolerance is a feature of dates.
- Bikaner is home to the Date Research Center. The date palm is being grown in the Bikaner region.
- Hirani, Menjul, Arabic date, Bahri, Jahindi, and other varieties of dates are the most common.
- Grofiola is the most common date palm disease.
- In Chopasni, Jodhpur, the country’s first and Asia’s second-largest date plant laboratory has opened.
5. Isabgol (horse cumin)
- Isabgol (horse cumin) is a type of cumin used in
- Jalore, Barmer, Sirohi, Nagaur, Pali, and Jodhpur are the key producing districts of Isabgol.
- India produces around 80% of the world’s isabgol.
- The Jalore district produces 40% of India’s Isabgol.
- Isabgol is used to make pharmaceuticals, clothing dyes, printing, cosmetics, and fiber food.
- Isabgol is the subject of research at the Agricultural Research Center in Mandore (Jodhpur).
- In Rajasthan, the export of Isabgol is the most important crop for medical purposes.
- The Isabgol plant has opened on Abu Road.
- Cumin is a Rabi crop, which means it grows in the spring.
- Buttermilk, scorch, udder, and other illnesses are common in cumin.
- Cumin comes in two main varieties: RS-1 and SC-43.
- In terms of cumin output and area, Rajasthan leads the country.
- Cumin is mostly grown in the Jalore district’s Bhinmal, Jaswantpura, and Raniwada tehsils.
- In Rajasthan, Bhadwasia is home to the largest cumin market (Jodhpur).
Read more : Business and new mushroom cultivation methods.
Seeds of Oil
Rajasthan is the second-largest producer of oilseeds, after Uttar Pradesh.
In Rajasthan, Rabi oilseed crops include mustard, mustard, taramira, and linseed, whereas Kharif oilseed crops include groundnut, soybean, sesame, and castor.
In Rajasthan, there is a steady increase in the production of oilseeds.
- India is the world’s largest producer of mustard.
- Rajasthan is known as the Mustard State.
- Rajasthan has the largest mustard production and productivity area in the country (30 percent).
- Among the oilseed rabi crops, mustard has the most land.
- Mustard thrives in a cold, dry area with temperatures ranging from 15 to 20 degrees Celsius and rainfall ranging from 75 to 100 cm. Light clay or loamy soils, as well as annual rainfall, are ideal.
- Varuna (Most Improved Variety), RH-819, RL-1359, Bio-902, and Pusa Bold are the most common mustard varieties.
- Champa (mustard acid), stem rot disease, white rowly, and Alternaria blight are the most common diseases that affect mustard.
- The Yellow Revolution (Yellow Revolution) is primarily a mustard revolution. The Green Revolution had the greatest impact on mustard in oilseeds.
- Bharatpur (the highest producing district), Alwar, Jaipur, Ganganagar, Dholpur, and Sawai Madhopur are the major mustard producing districts in Rajasthan.
- Khal is the pulp left over after extracting the oil from mustard.
- The Central Mustard Research Center was created in Sever, Bharatpur district, on October 20, 1993, as part of the Eighth Five Year Plan.
- Sumerpur is home to Rajasthan’s largest mustard market (Pali).
- Sesame is mostly grown in the Kharif season. This is best done in a hot, humid atmosphere.
- Sesame requires a temperature range of 25 to 35 degrees Celsius and a height of 50 to 100 cm. Rainfall is necessary every year.
- Light sandy and loamy soil with a high organic matter content are ideal for sesame.
- Pali (the majority) and Nagaur are the two most important sesame-producing districts.
- Peanuts should be kept at a temperature of 30 to 35 degrees Celsius, at a height of 50 to 75 cm. A calcium-rich soil, light loamy soil, or light black soil are all ideal.
- Peanuts are susceptible to diseases such as Tikka disease, Crown rot, Kalra, Bhung, White braid, and others.
- Jaipur and Bikaner are the two most important peanut-producing areas in India.
- Because of its peanut production, Lunkaransar (Bikaner) is known as Rajasthan’s Rajkot.
- Rajasthan is the seventh-largest producer of groundnuts in the country.
- Sunflowers are a Kharif and Rabi season crop.
- Sunflowers should be grown at a height of 100 to 120 cm. 135 days are required for annual rainfall and ripening.
- Ganganagar, Jhalawar, Kota, Jodhpur, and Bikaner are the key sunflower-producing districts.
- MSH – 8, and EC – 68415 are the most common sunflower varieties.
5. Mat Glycine
- Temperatures of 15° to 34° Celsius and 60 to 120 cm are ideal for growing soybeans. The annual rainfall is enough.
- Soybean is the world’s cheapest, easiest, and most nutritious protein source.
- Soybean is the most widely grown crop in Rajasthan’s Kharif oilseeds.
- Rajasthan is the fourth-largest producer of soybeans in the country.
- T-1, Punjab-1, Max-13, Gaurav, Pusa-16, and other significant soybean cultivars are available.
In terms of castor output, Rajasthan is third in the country, whereas Gujarat is first.
7. Symondsia chinensis (Hohoba-Jojoba)
- Yellow gold is another name for the exotic plant Hohoba-Jojoba.
- It’s a salt-loving, high-heat-tolerance plant.
- Hohoba-Jojoba grows in the deserts of Israel, Mexico, and California, among other places.
- In 1965, this plant was transplanted from Israel to Kajri (Jodhpur) for the first time in Rajasthan.
- Hohoba-Jojoba oil is used as a lubricant, as well as in the production of cosmetics and adhesives.
- Aporge Sansthan has constructed Hohoba-Jojoba farms in Fatehpur (Sikar-70 Ha) and Dhand (Jaipur-5.45 Ha).
- In the private sector, the state’s largest Jojoba Plantation project in Jhajjar, Bikaner, has begun.
- In Rajasthan, olives are grown for the manufacturing of edible olive oil, which aids in the control and reduction of bad cholesterol.
- The olive tree in Rajasthan was imported from Israel.
- Olive is seen as a peace sign. The United Nations’ symbol shows a bird in flight with olive leaves.
Pushkar (Ajmer) – The Rajasthan government has built the state’s first Pushk Mandi in Pushkar (Ajmer). The state’s native rose, Damascus Gulab (Teal Gulab), is grown at Pushkar and Ajmer. Rose India is a rose variety with a unique name.
Damascus/Teal roses are grown in Khamnore (Rajsamand). The finest perfume is a teal rose.
RIICO is constructing a flower park in Khushkheda (Alwar).
- Sialu Kharif is a type of Rajasthani agriculture in which maize, millet, and other grains are sown in Ashadh and harvested in Asoj (Ashwin).
- Unalu (Rabi) cultivation in Rajasthan is when wheat, barley, and other grains are planted in Kartik and harvested in Chaitra-Vaishakh.
- Ageti, Agawati, and Angato are the names of the crops sown before Deepawali, and Pacheti and Pachhanto are the names of the crops sown after Deepawali in the month of Margashirsh.
- Weeding is the process of clearing the shrubs from a field before ploughing them.
- In Rajasthan, the districts of Jalore and Sirohi are known for their Isabgol, Cumin, and Tomato agriculture. In the districts of Baran, Kota, Jhalawar, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, and Jaipur, coriander is grown.
- Nagaur (Tausar) is known for its Paan Methi manufacture (Green Fenugreek).
- Rajasthan’s spice output is led by the Kota district.
- Swaminathan’s efforts to initiate the Green Revolution in India began in 1966-67.
- Jhuming system Walra cultivation is practiced in Rajasthan’s districts of Dungarpur, Banswara, and Udaipur, among others.
- Tilam Sangh (Rajasthan State Cooperative Oilseeds Production Federation Limited) was founded in 1990.
- Jodhpur (for guar, mehndi, moth, and spices), Kota (for coriander and medicinal plants), and Ganganagar (for luscious fruits) are the three agricultural export zones in the state.