How do you go about growing peppers and how much money can you make?
Learn everything there is to know about black pepper growing.
Black pepper cultivation is proven to be a profitable business due to the growing demand for the spice on the global market. Farmers who cultivate it can earn a lot of money. Every year, India exports pepper worth Rs 20 crore to foreign countries. As a result, cultivating it is not a waste of time. It is primarily grown in India’s southern states. Farmers in Chhattisgarh are making a lot of money from it. It can produce a lot of food if it is grown organically. Let us know how to make a lot of money growing black pepper.
Black Pepper: An Overview
Black pepper is the botanical name for the unripe and dried fruits of the Pippali family’s Marichpippali creeper-like perennial plant. Peeled ripe dried fruits are used to make white circular chilies with a diameter of around 5 mm. It’s used as a seasoning.
How’s the pepper plant doing?
The pepper plant’s leaves are oblong. It has leaves that are 12 to 18 cm long and 5 to 10 cm wide. It has shallow roots. Its plant’s root is two meters underground. It takes the shape of a tree.
What is the location of black pepper cultivation?
The black pepper plant is thought to have originated in South India. It is also grown in the mountainous districts of Maharashtra and Assam, including Travancore, Cochin, Malabar, Mysore, Coorg, Sylhet, and Khasi. Its cultivation has now taken off in Chhattisgarh as well. It is grown in nations such as Indonesia, Borneo, Indochina, Malay, Lanka, and Siam, among others.
Black pepper’s properties and applications
Black pepper has a hot effect, according to Ayurveda. Its grains include 5 to 9% of the alkaloids piperine, piperidine, and chavicine, as well as an aromatic oil ranging from 1 to 2.6 percent, 6 to 14 percent of green color with strong aromatic odor, 30 percent of starch, and other substances. Aromatic, spicy, and energizing, black pepper is a great addition to any meal. Its use has been mentioned in Ayurveda and Unani medicine for ailments such as Kapha, Vata, Breath, Agnimandya Unnidra, and so on. Its special sort of rasam is drunk with food in the South to increase appetite and reduce fever. It’s almost universally used as a spice in Indian cuisine. It is specifically used in the canning of various types of meat, for food preservation, and as a condiment in Western countries.
What is the difference between white and black pepper?
White pepper is a type of black pepper that is collected before the rest of the crop. White and black pepper are both fruits of the same plant, but their uses are distinct due to their hue.
white pepper is used
White pepper is frequently used in light-colored foods such as soups, salads, thandais, and baked goods.
What is the Best Way to Grow Black Pepper?
Black pepper is simple to grow. It does not necessitate any additional training. It can be grown by any farmer. If it is grown organically, it produces a lot of fruit.
Sowing black pepper requires land, environment, and temperature.
For black pepper cultivation, red laterite soil and red soil are recommended. The soil on which black pepper is grown should have the ability to retain water. The land’s pH level should be between 5 and 6. This is best done in a mildly cold climate. The minimum temperature for this is 10 to 12 degrees Celsius. Its plant is unable to grow below this temperature.
When is the best time to plant peppers?
In the middle of September, it is cut and planted. After planting, a light irrigation should be applied.
How to grow peppers
Pepper plants are propagated using cuttings. A couple of cuttings are taken and planted. Planting black pepper cuttings in a row is recommended. When planting the cuttings, make sure to provide enough space between them so that they have enough room to spread. On one hectare of land, there should be 1666 plants. Planting a black pepper vine. They can reach a height of 30 to 45 meters from this vantage point. However, it’s vine is only permitted to grow to a height of 8 to 9 meters so that its fruits may be picked easily. Black pepper plants blossom for at least 25 to 30 years. It’s crop doesn’t need to be shaded.
Fertilizers and manures
A total of 5 kg of compost must be blended. Ammonia sulphate and nitrogen should be found in the soil based on the pH value. 100 grams of potassium and 750 grams of magnesium sulphate should be mixed into the soil before planting. The country of M’s acidity. Once every two years, 500 grams of dolomitic lime must be utilized.
Black pepper is grown organically using traditional species. Which can defend the crop against pests, nematodes, and illnesses. Because no artificial chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or fungicides are used in organic farming. To compensate for the lack of fertilizers, the soil fertility is increased by composting all crop leftovers, green grass, green leaves, feces, and chicken manure, among other things.
FYM, based on the age of the plants. 5-10 kilometers In the village, earthworm manure or leaf waste (5-10 kg per plant) is sprayed on each plant. Based on soil tests, enough amounts of lime, rock phosphate, and ash are applied to assure a minimum supply of phosphorus and potassium.
To boost fertility and productivity, oil cakes such neem cake (1 kg/plant), compost coir pith (2.5 kg/plant), or compost coffee pulp (rich in potassium), azospirium, and phosphate are utilized. Bacteria that emulsify substances are employed. The crop’s productivity is harmed by a lack of nutrients. Depending on the standards limit or organization’s evidence, nutrient source minerals/chemicals may be applied on soil or leaves.
When should you irrigate?
Rainwater is used to cultivate it. In the absence of rain, it should be provided light watering and irrigation should be continued as needed. After planting, a light irrigation should be applied. Following that, irrigation can be done as needed.
Management of pests and diseases
Biopesticides, biocontrol agents, attractants, and phytosanitary measures are used in organic farming to manage diseases, pests, nematodes, and nematodes. Neem Gold (0.6%) is sprayed every 21 days and should be used between July and October. This can also be used to control Pollu’s beat. Uproot and kill highly congested branches, then spray with Neem gold (0.6 percent) or fish oil myrrh to control scale insects (3 percent).
Fungi-caused diseases can be treated in the soil by using appropriate carrier media such as coirpith compost, dried cow dung, or neem cake to treat Trichoderma or Pseudomonas biocontrol agents. Other diseases can be treated by using a 1-3 Bordeaux mixture with copper at an annual rate of 8 kg per hectare.
Time for peppers to ripen and production
Between the months of July and August, white and light yellow blooms appear on the dark colored dense black pepper plant. Between January and March, the fruits are ready to ripen. The fruits are spherical, with a diameter of 3 to 6 mm. Each plant yields 4 to 6 kg of round black pepper after drying. Each of its clusters has 50 to 60 grains. These bunches are removed once they have ripened and stored in the ground or on laying mats. The grains are next handled by rubbing them between the palms of the hands. The grains are separated and then dried in the sun for 5 to 7 days. When black pepper seeds are entirely dry, they shrink and wrinkle on the surface. These grains take on a dark black tint. This black pepper is ready to be sold in the market at this point.
Manufacturing white pepper
To make white pepper, ripe red pepper is soaked in water for 7 to 8 days, then the outer cover is removed, the white color appears from within, and the pepper is dried. goes. White pepper and black pepper are sold individually. Plastic bags should be used for packing and should be made of clean material. Black pepper should be kept fully dry to avoid spoilage.
In the manufacturing of black pepper, there are a few things to keep in mind.
Following the harvesting of the black pepper fruit, threshing, boiling, drying, cleaning, grading, and packing are carried out. All of this should be done with extreme caution. Great care should be taken to preserve the quality of black pepper. Only if all of the steps are followed correctly will the chilli’s quality remain consistent.
The black pepper sacks are removed from the spikes using the traditional way of crushing them with their foot. This is a heavily modified, time-consuming, and harmful procedure. Nowadays, a thresher with a capacity of 50 kg per hour to 2500 kg per hour is utilized to separate the pepper from the spike.
Take the following steps to improve the quality of black pepper.
Chili is extracted by immersing it in boiling water for a minute to improve its quality. As a result, all black pepper assumes the same hue after drying. Microorganisms are also killed by it. When the black pepper has dried for 3 to 4 days, the outer cover is removed, as well as the dirt.
Black pepper that has been dried
When black pepper is cracked, 65 to 70% of the water is released. After drying, it can retain up to 10% of its original volume. When phenolase enzymes are used to dry black pepper, the enzymes and phenolic compounds are oxidized by ambient oxygen, causing the black pepper to turn black. It was formerly exclusively dried in the sun.
There is a decaying concern if there is more than 12 percent water left in it. Which are harmful to human health. The dry output of black pepper is around 33-37 percent. Electricity-powered mechanical dryers are also available for drying chiles. It can also be put to use.
Grading – After that, the black pepper is broken and cleaned as part of the grading process. As a result, all of the dirt is blown away. And the black pepper is well cleansed.
Packing – After the grading process, the pepper is packaged, and care should be given to ensure that the storage or packing method used is airtight in order to protect the pepper’s quality.
How much will the income be and how big will the yield be?
A bush of black pepper can be worth ten thousand rupees, and farmers don’t have to put in much effort to grow it. The price of black pepper in the domestic market was roughly Rs 400 per kilogram last year. It is now being offered on the market for Rs 420 per kilogram. If we plant 400 black pepper bushes, we can make between 40 and 50 lakh rupees per year.