Mustard Planting Instructions Mustard Plant Farming in Hindi | Mustard Earnings
Mustard Plant Farming-Related Information
Major oilseed crops (groundnut, mustard, and soybean) include mustard and rye. Mustard is noted for producing more profit at a lower cost. It is mostly grown in Rajasthan’s Madhavpur, Bharatpur Sawai, Kota, Jaipur, Alwar, Karoli, and other districts. Mustard is made by pressing the seeds for oil. In our country, mustard oil is utilized in enormous quantities. Mustard seeds also produce oil cake in addition to oil. Which is used to feed animals.
It’s cake contains about 2.5 percent phosphorus, 1.5 percent potash, and 4 to 9 percent nitrogen. As a result, it is used as fertilizer in other nations, but it is only utilized as animal feed in India. Mustard seeds contain just 30 to 48 percent oil, and the dried stems can also be used as fuel. This article will provide you with crucial information on mustard cultivation.
Suitable Soil, Climate, and Temperature for Mustard Cultivation
The winter season is thought to be ideal for growing mustard. Its plants require a temperature range of 18 to 24 degrees to thrive. Rainy or gloomy conditions during mustard flowering is detrimental to the yield.
Mustard cultivation necessitates the use of soil, particularly sandy loam soil. It’s crop cannot be grown in soil that is both alkaline and acidic.
Improved Mustard Varieties
This variety’s plants are ready to harvest in 125 to 140 days. It’s plants produce thick pods. Only 37-38% oil can be extracted from it’s grain. It produces between 20 and 25 quintals per hectare.
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This plant variety grows to a height of 180-190 cm. It produces white rolly pods that are resistant to cracking. Plants are ready to harvest around 130-135 days, and this variety produces 25 to 27 quintals per hectare.
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In this mustard type, it takes 135 to 140 days for the crop to mature. It’s plants grow to a medium height, and it’s seeds yield up to 43 percent oil. It produces 22 to 25 quintals per hectare and is resistant to white roly.
Apart from that, mustard varieties such as Jagannath (BS5), Bio 902 (Pusa Jai Kisan), T 59 (Varuna), RH. 30, Aashirvad (RK 3-5), Swarna Jyoti (R.H. 9802), Lakshmi (R.H. 8812), and others are grown.
Preparation of the Farm
Mustard seeds should be planted on a field that has been properly prepared so that a good harvest of mustard can be attained. A friable soil is essential for mustard growing. Because mustard is planted after the kharif crop, the ground should be plowed thoroughly enough to totally eliminate the vestiges of the previous crop.
After that, let the field open for a few days to ensure that the soil receives adequate sunshine. The next process is to slant plough the land two to three times with a rotavator. After ploughing start with a pad to ensure that the field is level and that there are no water-logging issues.
Sowing Mustard at the Appropriate Time and With the Appropriate Method
Between September and October is the best time to plant mustard. It can be planted till the end of October in irrigated areas alone. Mustard is sown in rows at temperatures ranging from 25 to 27 degrees Fahrenheit. Queues should be set up in the field with a 30 cm spacing between them. Following that, mustard seeds should be planted at a spacing of 10 cm apart.
The seeds should be treated with a sufficient dose of Mancozeb before sowing. Following that, the seeds should be put in depth based on the soil’s moisture content. Per hectare, 3 to 5 kilogram of seeds are required.
Quantity of Mustard Field Fertilizer and Manure
A substantial amount of manure and fertilizer should be applied to the field for a decent crop production. For this, 8 to 10 tonnes of old cow dung should be applied per hectare when plowing the land. Then, drive the tractor onto the field and thoroughly mix the cow dung. As a chemical fertilizer, use 30 to 40 kg of phosphorus, 375 kilogram of gypsum, 80 kg of nitrogen, and 60 kg of sulfur per hectare. At the time of tillage, apply the full amount of phosphorus and half of the nitrogen, then apply the remaining half at the time of beginning irrigation.
Irrigation of Mustard Plants
Mustard seeds do not require much irrigation because they are planted in the winter. However, irrigation at the correct moment can result in an excellent yield. It should be irrigated for the first time right after the seeds are planted. After that, every 60 to 70 days, a second irrigation should be performed. If the field requires irrigation, water should be applied to it.
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Weed Control in Mustard Fields
It is vital to suppress weeds in order for mustard plants to thrive. Weeds should be eradicated in a natural manner for this. It should be weeded for the first time every 25 to 30 days. After that, it should be mulched from time to time when weeds appear in the field. Weed control can also be achieved chemically by spraying flumerelin with the appropriate amount of irrigation.
Harvesting, Yield, and Benefits of Mustard Crops
In 125 to 150 days, the mustard crop is fully mature. After that, it’s ready to harvest. If the plants are not harvested at the appropriate time, the beans begin to crack. As a result, the yield may be reduced by 7 to 10%. When the mustard plants’ pods turn yellow, it’s time to harvest. The mustard plant produces 25 to 30 quintals per hectare. Because the market price of mustard is so high, farmers can make a lot of money growing mustard.