Why Micro irrigation is significant for India.
The ‘Ninth International Micro Irrigation Conference on Modern Agriculture,’ organized by the Union Ministry of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation, will take place in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, from January 16 to 18. This conference will be a multidisciplinary discussion on many issues linked to micro-irrigation in modern agriculture, as well as an innovative technology for improving crop yield and micro-irrigation in cluster-level farming.
What exactly is a Micro Irrigation System, and how does it work?
The best and most current technique of providing fertilizer and water to horticulture crops is the micro-irrigation system. More land is irrigated with less water with a micro-irrigation system. In this method, water is delivered in a predetermined quantity from the source to the field via a pipeline. This not only helps to reduce water waste, but it also helps to improve water efficiency. The use of a micro-irrigation system has been shown to save 30-40% of water. This type of irrigation also improves the quality and yield of crops. Under the objective of’ more crop per drop,’ the government is also pushing sprinkler and drop irrigation systems. The majority of water in our country is delivered to the fields for irrigation via kutcha drains, which waste roughly 30-40% of the water due to leakage. There is a benefit to employing the micro-irrigation approach in this case.
What are the two main types of micro irrigation systems?
Micro-irrigation systems are now being viewed as a water-saving solution in the changing landscape. A micro-irrigation system is a cutting-edge approach for conserving water during irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are the most common methods used in micro irrigation systems.
Sprinkler Method (फव्वारा विधि)
Sprinkler irrigation is a type of artificial rain in which water is sprayed into the air. A modest pressure nozzle is used to spray water. The water is turned into fine droplets and rains down on the plants in this technique. Sprinklers are situated at the appropriate distance from the crops and run with the help of a pump, which causes the water to flow quickly. The water is sprayed out of the sprinkler’s nozzle. In locations where water is scarce, this strategy has shown to be quite effective. Drought-prone locations, sandy soils, low-lying places, and water-scarce areas all benefit from spray irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation can also be used in meadows and parks. The sprinkler can be moved around the field as well.
The Fountain Method’s Benefits
- When compared to surface irrigation methods, this technology allows for easier water control.
- Because drains are not required in this system, more land is accessible for crop production.
- Plants absorb roughly 80-90 percent of the water, whereas the traditional approach only uses about 30-40 percent of the water.
- It is not necessary to level the soil; it may be irrigated simply even in high-low and sloping areas.
- Because pesticides can be applied more effectively with sprinklers, the crops are less susceptible to pests and illnesses.
- Soluble fertilizers are simple to use and apply to crops.
Drop Method (टपक विधि)
The drip irrigation system was first established in Israel in the early 1960s, and then later in Australia and North America. Water is delivered to the roots of the plants via a pipeline and drippers placed on the surface or below. Drop-by-drop irrigation of crops and horticultural plants is done in this manner. This technique of irrigation saves around half of the water used in traditional irrigation. It also boosts crop productivity, decreases weeds, and boosts crop product quality. Along with irrigation, fertilizers can be employed in this manner.
Advantages of the Drip Method
- Because the water does not go down the root zone in the soil by pouring over the surface, irrigation with this approach uses about half the water as traditional irrigation.
- Because there are fewer weeds in the field, the amount of labor required is reduced.
- More moisture remains in the root zone as a result of regular irrigation, resulting in a low salt concentration.
- Water may be changed according to the kind of soil, making it ideal for all sorts of soils.
- There are extremely few risks of soil erosion, and there is no shortage of moisture in the soil, which promotes plant growth and development.
Fertigation Method(फर्टिगेशन विधि)
Fertigation consists of the words fertilizer (fertilizer) and irrigation (irrigation) (irrigation). While irrigating with a drip system, fertilizers are also provided to the plants in this relatively new technology. Fertigation is widely regarded as the most effective and advanced method of fertilizer application in the field. Fertilizers can be applied in modest amounts with pre-planned irrigation at short intervals using this strategy. As a result, the plants receive the nutrients they require and no fertilizer is wasted. In most cases, only liquid fertilizers are used in fertigation, however granular and dry fertilizers can also be applied this way by dissolving them in water.
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National Micro Irrigation Mission
In June 2010, the National Mission on Micro Irrigation (NMMI) was launched. Micro-irrigation is used in important government projects such as the National Food Security Mission (NFSM), the Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, and Maize, and the Technology Mission on Cotton, among others, to improve water use efficiency, crop yield, and farmer income. The instructions outlined in this document will boost agricultural output by improving water use efficiency, as well as provide answers to challenges such as water salinity and waterlogging.
- The ‘Micro Irrigation Fund-MIF’ was established with NABARD under the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana with an initial sum of Rs 5000 crore.
- A total of Rs 2000 crore would be spent in 2018-19 and Rs 3000 crore in 2019-20.
- During this time, NABARD will repay the state governments for the loan. The sum borrowed from NABARD can be repaid in seven years, with a two-year grace period.
- MIF will supplement the efforts of ‘More Crop Per Drop,’ a vital component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana, in a timely and effective manner.
- This award will assist governments in mobilizing resources to broaden the reach of micro-irrigation by including unique and creative projects.
Prime Minister’s Agriculture Irrigation Scheme
The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana was authorized by the Central Government in July 2015. For the next five years, a provision of Rs 50,000 crore has been created (2015-16 to 2019-20). The scheme’s key goals include providing uniformity to investment, developing the agricultural sector under ‘Har Khet Ko Pani,’ minimizing water waste in the fields by enhancing water usage efficiency and implementing proper irrigation and water-saving practices. And each drop contains more crops, etc.
There are 200.8 million hectares of cultivable land in the country, but only 95.8 million hectares are irrigated. It covers only 48% of the overall land area. It is also difficult to provide the necessary water for modern agriculture on 52 percent of the unirrigated agricultural land in such a situation. Only proper water management will be able to meet this issue. In addition, India has around 17% of the world’s population but just 4% of the world’s water resources. The issue of conserving water in such a setting is enormous, and a micro-irrigation system can be extremely beneficial.