Lilium Propagation Techniques
Flowers have attracted humans since the dawn of time because of their colour and texture. At this time, floriculture has evolved into a business. For many countries around the world, this is their primary source of income.
Himachal Pradesh, nestled in the Himalayas, is one of those mountainous states endowed by nature, where the temperature is ideal for commercial flower growth and propagation. As a result, the state’s farmers and gardeners have become more interested in floriculture.
As a result, the area devoted to the flower industry is steadily growing. In 1990, just 5.0 hectares of land were planted with flowers, but by 2013-14, that number had risen to 910.0 hectares.
Lilium is a popular flower in tuberous flowers around the world, second only to the tulip. It is grown for cut flowers in key exporting countries throughout the world because of its attractive shape, variety of colours, prolonged freshness, and appealing textural features.
In Himachal Pradesh, roughly 20 hectares of land are dedicated to the cultivation of Lilium. The majority of the bulbs used in its cultivation are imported from Holland. India imports roughly 15-20 lakh bulbs from Holland each year, and there is a need for about the same amount.
The tuber flower trade is projected to be worth around 12000 crores in the total annual trade of the world. Tuber flowers can be grown in a variety of climates for flower production, but their bulb production and multiplication necessitate a cool temperature with a defined winter season, which is only available in a few places.
Only the hilly regions of Himachal Pradesh, such as Lahaul and Spiti, Kinnaur, Chamba, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttarakhand, have this type of climate, which is ideal for bulb production. Scaly tubers, aerial tubers, scale detachment, tuber division, and tissue propagation are all used to spread Lilium.
Method of scale amplification
Scaling can be used to multiply tubers in a quick and low-cost manner. Bulb scaling is an easy way to reproduce most Lilium species. To propagate tubers, choose only healthy, large, disease-free, and dormant-free tubers.
Separate the scales of the bulb’s outer 2-3 and middle layers by breaking them well with the base plate to produce fine-scale tubers. For about 15-20 minutes, apply a fungicide solution containing Bavistin 1.0 gm and Dithane M-45 1.0 gm in one liter of water to the scales. Root-growing hormones like NAA are then applied to the lower half of the scales. For 10-15 minutes, treat at (500 ppm).
Before applying to the scales medium, let it dry in the shade. Plant the scales in wet fine trays or boxes in an appropriate media, such as cocopite and vermiculite, with the upper part of the scale remaining outside the medium. Keep the scales in a well-ventilated room with a temperature of 24 degrees Celsius to allow the scales, tubers, and roots to fully develop.
Using a spray pump, maintain humidity in the air. The length of time it takes for bulblets to form is determined by the variety and kind of bulb. Longiflorum hybrids begin to generate little bulblets at 10–12 weeks, Asiatic species at 12–14 weeks, and Oriental hybrid Lilium at 16–18 weeks.
In this manner, approximately 3-4 bulblets are created on a single scale. After that, detach the bulblets from the scale and store them for 3 to 4 weeks at an intermediate temperature (4-10 °C), then for 6-8 weeks in cold storage at 2 °C.
When the weather and soil conditions are suitable, plant the scales in the outside rows. Scale tubers are ready to germinate, so plant them when the fog is at its lowest. Scales are typically planted and left in the ground for two seasons.
Many Asiatica and Longiflorum cultivars flower the same season they are planted, showing that the clone is thriving.
Method of tuber division
Tubers grow in the circle of the base plate in some cultivars, eventually transforming into replacement tubers. Each species or hybrid has its rate of bulb production; for example, very small bulbs, weak species, or underdeveloped bulbs can only create new bulbs.
In the summer, when removing lights, we’ll see additional bulbs attached to the base plate, which are simple to remove. If the bulbs are not removed for two seasons, the original bulbs are at risk of being destroyed, and the bulb size may remain small. Tuber division works better for Asiatica and L.A. Hybrid variants than for Oriental lilies. They can be dug up and replanted in a new or old location at the end of the summer.
Read more : Gram cultivation in India : the entire process
Method of Stem Bulblets
Some variants occur underground or on the upper portion of the stems. Their number and size are determined by the species, variety, and quality of the bulb. Up to a dozen, bulblets can be produced by fully developed stems. Small, fully grown bulbs with scales and roots that are ready to sow.
The stimulation of stem roots for a large increase in size and weight is necessitated by an increase in their numbers. It is planted in an open, gritty, humus-rich soil with a depth of at least 10-15 cm. Bulb planting can be used to increase size.
Late spring humus mulching can also help with rooting.
Bulbils technique in the classroom
Small dark bulbils emerge on the leaf margins and turn purple-black as they mature, occasionally producing leaves and roots before the bulbils are entirely ripe and fall to the ground.
Bulbil formation can be boosted by plucking flower buds or spraying with growth stimulants like BA or paclobutrazol.
If the bulbils are removed and transplanted before the end of the summer, one or two flowering twigs of the required proportion can be obtained, and the next summer will yield more than two flowers.
Tissue Propagation Method for Lilium Tuber Production
Tissue propagation techniques can create a large number of disease-free plants in a short amount of time from a small number of mother plants. This approach makes use of very fine tissues. Following superficial sterilization, these tissues are placed in an artificial medium, such as a solid or liquid medium.
Before filling a test tube, bottle, or jar, the nutritional medium is sterilized. The nutrition media is then poured into the vessel indicated above, and microtissue such as scale, lateral bud, stem, leaf, or any other portion of the plant are cultivated inside the laminar flow.
The tissue is then housed in a light- and temperature-controlled living room for the process. Periodically, re-enrichment is carried out. After that, the shoots are placed in the root-growing medium.
After the roots have developed, the plants are planted in the hardening chamber to adjust to the external environment, and then they are planted outside after complete hardening.