Jowar and Bajra seed production technique in India
Jowar is the world’s fifth most consumed grain; 55 per cent of jowar is consumed in the form of bread and porridge, and the plant is fed to animals. Animal feed accounts for 33% of sorghum grain in the United States.
In 1970, India produced 9 million tones of jowar, which climbed to 12 million tones in 1980. In 1990, the tonnage and yield stayed stable, and they remained stable until 2006, but the area decreased dramatically. Despite the restricted area, improved varieties and technology were the cause for the yield not being reduced.
In India, the tide is 8.7 mm. In a total area of 3.9 mm. In Kharif, with a diameter of 4.8 mm in Rabi season when this crop is grown. India accounts for 20% of the entire area covered by the world’s tides. In the Kharif season, productivity is 1345 kg per hectare, while in the Rabi season, productivity is 480 kg per hectare. High yielding cultivars contribute 0.7 mm to the total of 6.5 mm. It’s finished. Despite this, there is an annual shortfall of 80 metric tones of green fodder and 660 metric tones of dry fodder.
Pusa Chari, Jowar – 9, height 15 to 16 ft
It is necessary to ensure that established technology and its availability are available so that seed replacement can be improved above 15-20%. Only then will it be possible to boost both production and productivity. This article’s goal is for farmers to be able to make seeds of new types for themselves.
Jowar and Bajra seed production technique (method)
Knowledge of efficiency, floral knowledge, and features are vital for seed production. The best seed can be created if the following factors are considered.
- Field selection: in order to complete the preparation in a timely manner.
- There is a wide range of options to pick from, depending on your location.
- Aadhar Seed or Certified Seed is the highest quality seed available.
- Captan or Captaf 2 g per kg for treatment Seed
- Late June or early July is the best time to plant.
- 12 to 15 kg of seed per hectare
- Nitrogen 75 to 80 kg fertilizer Phosphorus 30-40 kg, half prior to sowing and half prior to watering. On sowing, 25-30 kg of potash is used. on the sowing
After sowing, water for the first time after 20-25 days, and then again if necessary or after blossoming.
For breeder seed, the separation distance is 400 metres, while for certified seed, it is 200 metres. Make sure you maintain a safe distance. The space between lines is 40-50 cms. Keep it up.
Apply 0.5 kg before sowing to avoid weeds. A hectare of atrazine should be sprayed. Interculture can also be used to eliminate weeds.
The most common illnesses are:
- Madhumita (Sugar disease) is prevented by spraying 0.2 percent zeerum twice with a five-day interval before flowering (boot leaf stage).
- If Honey Dew is discovered in Bali, it must be removed and destroyed.
- Leaf spot is prevented by spraying Dithane Z-78 0.2 percent twice at a 15-day interval.
- Stem borer: Remove the infected plant and spray it with a 4 percent solution of Endosulfan or Carbaryl every 10 days after sowing for 20 days.
- Stem fly: This fly is not seen when the seed is sown after being treated with 5% carbofuran. 1.5 g phosate granules Pouring on a per square metre basis also saves money.
- Carbaryl dust (20 kg) for sitte flies. It’s a copy. It is possible to avoid.
- Termites: 25 kg if the field has been drought-stricken for a long time. Sulfur is a peroxide. Enter for the sake of safety.
- Malathion 50 ml Chepa 50 litres of water each person. Chapa is controlled through spraying.
- Rat: A zinc phosphide pill must be supplied at the time of flowering to prevent rats from it.
Roguing is a term used to describe the process of (removal of unwanted plants).Before the pollen grains fall, any undesired plants should be eliminated. They can be distinguished by their characteristics. It’s also a good idea to get rid of any sick plants. On suspicion, never leave a plant alone.
Threshing and harvesting
Only harvest when the crop is fully mature. Ensure that the sick plants are no longer present. After harvesting, dry the crop for a week on the floor. Then thresh using a thresher. Before storing the seeds, make sure they aren’t too wet.
6 Pusa Chari (one cut) Pusa Chari (Pusa Chari) – 9 – one to two possibilities Pusa Chari – two cuts – 23 615 Pusa Chari – one cut -1003 Pusa Chari – one to two possible.
Technology for Bajra Seed Production
India has a significant role in millet production. In India, the rainfall was 9.3 millimetres. The region produces bajra. This results in 8.3 tonnes produced in 8.3 minutes. The area has declined since 1980, although production and productivity have increased. Hybrid millet has a 3.0 mm surface area. Millet is a food and fodder crop in Asia and Africa, but it is only planted as fodder in America. Hybrid technology has the potential to significantly improve millet production.
Millet is utilised as animal feed because of its availability for tillering, growth, green and dry fodder, ratooning, and drought resistance. Its bitterness is employed in addition to the grain. Despite all of this, why is bajra production so low? The primary reasons for this include a lack of good quality seeds, a lack of advanced technology expertise, farmers not creating their own seeds, and millet cultivation on less productive ground.
Field of millet
To boost millet output and productivity, advanced technology must be used, with the following factors taken into consideration.
Jowar and Bajra seed production technique for seed production
so that preparation can be completed on time.
Depending on your location, you can choose from a variety of options.
Is it Better to Use Base Seed or Certified Seed?
Captan or Captaph 2g/kg of seed treatment
Sowing time: The optimal time to plant seeds is in mid-July.
Methods of seeding:
1. Direct sowing
Seeds per pound:
The direct seeding rate of a standard variety is 2.5 kg per hectare.
Hybrid selection Sowing directly A line yields 1.5 kg per hectare, while the B line yields 0.450 kg per hectare.
Raupai is a hybrid variety. A line is 400-600 grammes per hectare, while the B line is 200-300 grammes per hectare.
Planting Ratio: 2:4 (Male: Female)
Plant and line spacing: 15 cm between plants. 60 cm from line to line
100 kg of manure Half the amount of Netrazine is per second after the initial watering at the time of sowing.
Phosphorus at the time of sowing: 60 kg
40 kg of potash at the time of sowing
Irrigation: First irrigation 20 to 25 days after deposition, and if necessary, a second irrigation when Bali arrives.
Isolation distance: 1000 m between base and breeder seed.
400 m for certified seed
Before sowing, apply atrazine at a rate of 0.5 kg/per.
Read More : Advanced wheat production technologies
Jowar and Bajra seed production technique for Hybrid Seed Production
Line A female, which is male sterile, is crossed with line B male, who is male fertile, to produce hybrid seeds. This is how our female line A seed gets made. It’s known as maintenance of line A in hybrid seed production, and it’s employed as a female line in hybrid millet seed production. Male line seed, which is a distinct kind, is grown separately and this is Jowar and Bajra seed production technique for Hybrid seeds.
In hybrid seed production, two male lines and four female lines are planted, with four male lines placed all around the field to ensure that the female receives a sufficient amount of pollen grains. So that a large amount of hybrid seed can be produced.
To make seed of the Pusa-23 millet hybrid variety, for example, we must first produce 841A seed, then cross it with male D-23, and finally produce Pusa-23 hybrid seed.
Diseases and their Management
Rusting or rusting
- When the weather is mild in September, the disease is more prone to strike.
- Symptoms Pustules of a reddish color emerge on the leaf surface, and the leaves dry out prematurely.
- Choose weed-controlling and rust-resistant types.
- This disease has a 70 percent fatality rate. The seed becomes affected as well.
- Symptoms The fungus infects the flower first, then drops a red-colored sticky material called honey dew from the ovary onto the leaves. Long, thick colored compositions result as a result of this. which eventually turn dark
- Control scleracea is found in soil and seeds, which germinate when the right conditions are present.
Mildew (downy mildew)
- From below, the plant turns yellow.
- Asexual forms emerge, growth slows, and leaves-like formations do not enter the ear canal.
- Deep ploughing and separation of diseased seeds are examples of cultural control.
- Chemical control: Use of a practical and cost-effective fungicide, as well as the selection of fungi-resistant cultivars.
- Weed control: Antidotal-feeding Sancus silliaris and Panicum must be eradicated.