How to undertake advanced coconut cultivation – step-by-step instructions!!
The coconut tree is the longest-fruiting plant on the planet. Its plant has remained green for almost 80 years. Hindu religious ceremonies include the use of coconut fruits. The coconut tree is sometimes referred to as the “Plant of Heaven.” The coconut plant can grow to be more than 10 meters long. It has no leaves and no branches on its stalk.
Coconut fruit is used in a variety of ways. Coconut water is made from raw coconut. Raw coconut pulp is also consumed. When the coconut fruit is fully ripe, the oil is removed. Its oil is utilized in a variety of applications, including food, skin care, and pharmaceuticals. Giving it to a patient with a fever after burning coconut jute and combining it with hot water quenches his thirst.
Coconut oil can help with a variety of ailments, including burning, diarrhea, and the common cold. Coconut has the highest concentration of zinc. As a result, by utilizing it, the individual is able to overcome the disease of obesity. Coconut is also used to treat skin problems.
Coconut is grown near the water’s edge. Apart from that, it can also be grown in areas where the soil is saline. Coconut agriculture is best suited to tropical and subtropical regions. Its cultivation does not necessitate a lot of water. It is grown in Kerala, Maharashtra, Goa, West Bengal, Orissa, and other coastal places in India.
If you want to grow coconuts, we’ll provide you all the information you need today.
dirt that is ideal
The sandy loam soil is thought to be the best for coconut farming. Coconut farming may be done simply on land with good water retention and drainage, in addition to sandy loam soil. However, there should be no rock immediately beneath the earth. It can’t be grown on barren, rocky ground. Because coconut roots are very lengthy. Black and stony earth, on the other hand, is difficult. As a result, the roots are unable to penetrate deeply into the ground. For coconut farming, the pH of the soil is important. The value should fall between 5.2 and 8.8.
Temperature and climate
Coconut farming necessitates a warm, sub-tropical environment. For its cultivation, the relative humidity of the air is more crucial. Coconut cultivation necessitates a minimum relative humidity of up to 60%. Because if the relative humidity is less than this, the fruits will be of poor quality. Ripening coconut fruits necessitates warm temperatures.
Coconut farming necessitates a constant temperature. The plant produces a lot of fruit when the temperature is normal. In addition, the quality of the fruits is excellent. Coconut cultivation is also possible in areas where the temperature doesn’t fluctuate between 10 degrees in the cold and 40 degrees in the summer.
Types of Coconuts
Coconuts are divided into two types. However, hybridization has now resulted in the development of a third species.
Species that are tall
In non-traditional areas, tall coconut cultivars can be easily grown. This species’ plants are quite huge. They are also found in greater numbers than other species. Its plants do not require as much water. They are primarily grown along the west coast and in coastal areas. Kapadam, West Coast Tal, Lakshadweep Micro, Rangoon, Kaveri, Andaman Joint, Lakshadweep Ordinary, Lakshadweep Medium, Kaittali, Gangabhavani, Cochin China, Java Siam, Fiji Ghai, and Tegai are some of the kinds available.
Species of dwarfs
This species’ plants are quite tiny. Their lifespan is reported to be shorter than that of tall coconut species. This species’ varieties cannot be grown in non-traditional locations. Its plant demands additional water. In non-traditional regions, its yield is extremely low. And it’s plant need additional attention in these areas. Dwarf-Green, Lakshadweep Small, Maldives Dwarf, Philippine Dwarf, Lakshadweep Dwarf, Chavat Dwarf, Chanthengu, and Andaman Dwarf are the most common variations of this species.
Species that are hybrids
This species was created through the crossbreeding of tall and dwarf species. This species’ varieties have been deliberately bred to thrive in a variety of climate zones. Kerala Agricultural University and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University have developed ten different hybrids. This species’ plant has been bred to provide a high yield. With proper care, this species’ plant can produce a big amount of output.
Plow the ground
The field must first be ploughed properly before coconut plants can be planted. After plowing, level the field so that it does not become waterlogged during the rainy season. After that, make holes one meter long, wide, and deep while keeping a distance of 20 to 25 feet in the field. In the field, arrange all of the pits in a row. A spacing of 20 to 25 feet should also be maintained between the rows.
Time and manner of tree planting
From June to September is the best time to put coconut trees in the pit. It should not be planted if there is severe rain during this time. Because it is planted during periods of high rain, the risk of plant loss is greater. It can be planted a month before the rainy season in areas where water is properly arranged. Planting of its plants is best done after the rainy season in areas where flooding is a threat during the rainy season.
Fill the pits with the required amount of old manure or compost and let them open for a few days before planting the coconut plant. After that, mix it with some light dirt. When the soil and cow dung have hardened enough, use a hoof to create a pit in the center of the pits. Where the coconut plant’s seeds are easily accessible.
After you’ve planted the seed in the pit, fill it with soil and crush it from all sides. Keep in mind that the plant’s seed should be visible two to three cm outside when pushing the soil. After you’ve planted the plant in the pit, draw a circle around it using the earth you dug out of the pit. So that the water from the field does not fill the pits owing to severe rain, the soil is well pressed. Because of water logging in the pits, the plant soon spoils.
If an outbreak of white chit is detected in the field while establishing coconut plants, treat the soil with 5 grams of Sevidol 8G before putting the seed in the little pit. The plant can be spared from white ant infestation by doing so.
It is recommended that the plant be treated with roughly 2 kg of salt before being planted in soft soil. The plant should then be put in the pit. In addition, 20 to 25 coconut peels should be placed in the pit. As a result, a significant amount of moisture lingers near the plant.
Irrigation and plant care
After the plant is planted in the field, it will need to be cared for three to four years. During this time, the plant is kept safe from harsh winters and scorching summers. In order to grow properly, the coconut plant requires a sufficient amount of oxygen at first. For two to three years, the three to four cm space saved around the roots should not be covered with dirt.
Coconut plants, both tall and hybrid, do not require much water. Dwarf species, on the other hand, require more water. Only tall and hybrid plants can be planted in non-traditional settings. If these plants are put in the field during the rainy season, they will not require any initial irrigation. However, if the plant is planted before or after the rainy season, it must be irrigated right away. The plant should then be irrigated at the proper period to preserve moisture.
The drip method is the most effective and appropriate method for irrigating coconut plants. Because the plant receives the right amount of water with drip irrigation. As a result, the plant grows well and produces a different yield. The plant should be watered every three days during the summer season. During the winter, one watering per week is sufficient.
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For coconut production, the amount of fertilizer in the soil should be appropriate. Add 20 to 25 kg old cow dung manure and NPK in a 1:2:2 ratio before planting the coconut plants in the pits. It should be supplied in pits in the amount of half a kilo. NPK This half kilogram of fertilizer should be administered to the plant three times each year. Following that, the amount of fertilizer should be increased in tandem with the plant’s age.
Control of weeds
Weeding is required for weed management in coconut plants. Because there is good air circulation in the roots of the plant when blue water is hoed. As a result, the plants thrive and provide a high yield. In a year of coconut plant, three to four blue hoeing should be done. After the rain, the rest of the field should be plowed.
Income from overhead
After around 5 to 8 years, the coconut plant begins to yield. On the remaining land, the farmer brother can produce pulses and spice crops. As a result, they will continue to receive farm produce. You will also avoid any financial difficulties.
The coconut plant is susceptible to a number of illnesses. Which are brought on by the change of seasons and bug invasion. Those who should be avoided.
The Rhinoceros beetle is the bug that causes this illness in plants. The bug feeds on the plant’s young leaves in this disease. As a result, the copal’s leaves appear to be clipped after full bloom. This pest should be eliminated from the plant’s young branches to prevent the disease. Aside from that, fill the copal of the first three leaves with 25 grams of Sevidol 8g mixed with 200 grams of sand.
Mite of the Coconut
At the time of fruit production, this disease emerges on coconut plants. When this illness is applied, the color and shape of the fruits change. This disease can be prevented by spraying the plant with neemazole.
During blossoming, this disease emerges on plants. When this disease strikes, the plant’s female flowers do not develop properly. As a result, both fruits and flowers begin to spoil. Water and coconut kernels are not created in some fruits after they have fully grown due to the effects of this disease. Spraying carbaryl or Endosulfan on the plant before the fertilization process is complete will help to prevent this disease.
Palm weevil (red)
This disease is spread by insects on plants. It’s bugs makes holes in the plant’s stem. From then, the sticky stuff begins to emerge. Which these insects consume and discard. The plant immediately dries up and dies after being planted. To avoid it, the holes visible on the stem should be plugged with Selfos tablet powder or cotton soaked in kerosene. In addition, a suitable dose of endosulfan or carboryl should be injected into the plant’s stem.
Fruit rot disease causes the disparity in yield. When this disease first appears, the fruit stems begin to decay. It has a greater impact on newly produced fruits. The fruit quickly rots and spoils after being planted. Spraying the plants with Bordeaux mixture or Phytolon to prevent this disease is recommended. It should be sprayed twice throughout the rainy season, once before and once after.
Choking on the crown
In its early stages, this disease is most typically seen on plants. When this pathogen is introduced, the plant’s growth is halted. The shape of the plant’s leaves starts to change. The leaves gradually quit eating. As a result, the plant resembles a wooden stick. This plant disease is caused by a deficiency of nutrients. To prevent this illness, the right amount of fertilizer should be applied to the plants. In most soils, boron shortage increases as a result of this disease. As a result, the plant should receive 50 grams of borax every year.
Decay of the buds
The most damaging disease on plants is bud rot. The plant is completely killed when it is planted. When the plant is infected with this disease, the buds begin to wilt. This disease will reach the top of the plant if it is not prevented at the correct time. By melting the top section of the plant, it entirely destroys it. The scent of rotting eggs begins to emanate from the plants as the sickness progresses. Spraying the plant with a Bordeaux mixture two to three times a week will help to prevent this illness. Apart from that, when fresh buds of the plant are spotted early on, they should be coated with bordopest.
The most hardest task is harvesting coconut fruits. This requires climbing to the top of the plant. The coconut fruit takes more than 15 months to fully mature. They are, however, plucked even before that. The coconut is harvested for coconut water when it has turned green. The coconut becomes yellow when it is fully mature. It is proper to break the coconut just after it has been thoroughly cooked. After it has fully ripened, coconut is high in fiber and oil.
Profit and yield
The yields of different coconut cultivars vary. Which dwarf species plants produce the most? Because it only bears fruit after three years. The rest of the species do not begin yielding fruit for another 8 years. Different plants produce more than 50 quintals per acre on average. Their market value varies according on their quality. As a result, the farming brothers earn a good living.