All about Guava cultivation
Information in general
It is a common but profitable crop in India. Its origins can be traced back to Central America. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates. It contains a lot of calcium and phosphate, in addition to vitamin C and pectin. After mango, banana, and nimbu, it is India’s fourth most popular crop. It is grown throughout India. It is grown in Punjab and Haryana, as well as Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Guava is grown on an area of 8022 hectares in Punjab, with an average production of 160463 metric tonnes.
It’s a resilient crop that grows well in a variety of soils, from light to heavy and well-drained. It may also be cultivated in a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5 in soil. For a decent yield, it should be planted in a deep, well-drained sandy loam to loamy soil.
Known cultivars and yields
Punjab Pink: This variety’s fruits are medium to large and have a pleasing colour. In the summer, they turn a golden yellow tint. It has reddish-brown meat that has a pleasant odour. TSS content ranges from 10.5 to 12 per cent. One boot can provide up to 155 kg of yield.
Safeda Allahbad: It’s a medium-sized variety. Whose footwear has a circular shape? Its limbs are expanding out. It produces a delicate, spherical fruit. Its flesh is white in hue, with a pleasant scent emanating from it. It has a TSS content of 10 to 12 per cent.
Arka Amulya: The boot of Arka Amulya is small and spherical. It has a dense canopy of leaves. It produces huge, soft, spherical, white-fleshed fruits. The TSS content varies between 9.3 and 10.1 per cent. This fruit can yield up to 144 kilogrammes from a single boot.
Sardar: It’s also referred as to L 49. It’s a short-stemmed cultivar with a dense and spreading twig structure. Its fruit is huge and rough on the outside. It has cream-coloured flesh. It’s soft, juicy, and delicious to eat. It has a TSS content of 10 to 12 per cent. The yield per boot varies between 130 and 155 kg.
Punjab Safeda: The fruit of this type has creamy, white flesh. The fruit has a sugar level of 13.4% and a sourness content of 0.62 per cent.
Punjab Kiran: The pink flesh of this variety’s fruit is edible. The fruit has a sugar content of 12.3 per cent and a sourness level of 0.44 per cent. It has small, delicate seeds.
Shweta: The flesh of this variety’s fruit is a creamy white tint. The fruit has a sugar content of 10.5-11.0 per cent. It produces an average of 151 kilogrammes per tree.
Nigiski: The average yield per tree is 80 kg.
Punjab Soft produces an average of 85 kilogrammes per tree.
Surkha of Allahabad: It is a seedless variety. The fruits of this plant are huge and pink on the inside.
Apple guava: This variety produces medium-sized pink fruits. The fruits have a sweet flavour and can be stored for a long period.
Chittidar: This is a well-known Uttar Pradesh type. It bears fruits that are identical to those of the Allahabad Sufeda variety. Aside from it, the fruits of this type have red markings on them. It has a greater TSS content than the Allahabad Sufeda and L49 variants.
Preparation of the land
Level the field after ploughing it twice diagonally. Make sure there isn’t any standing water in the field.
Sowing time for sowing
Planting guava plants is best done in the months of February-March or August-September.
Planting saplings should be done at a distance of 6×5 metres. If the plants are planted in a square pattern, the spacing between them should be 7 metres. Per acre, 132 seedlings are sown.
To the roots, the seed depth is 25 cm. should be sown at a depth of ten centimetres
Direct sowing by placing stems in the field is a sowing method.
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Planting seeds or air layering are used to prepare the plants. Drought-tolerant seeds of the Sardar variety can be utilised by the roots to generate a panicle. From August to March, seeds should be prepared from fully ripe fruits and sown in beds or soft beds. The beds should have a length of 2 metres and a width of up to 1 metre. The paneer is ready for planting in the field after 6 months of sowing. The newly grown panicle has a width of 1 to 1.2 cm and a height of 15 cm. It is now ready to be employed in the germination technique. The months of May and June are ideal for this kind of grafting. The germination process can be employed with new plants and freshly cut twigs or cuttings.
Pruning and cutting
Plants require pruning and cutting to grow strong and properly. The better the quality, the stronger the stem and the bigger the yield. After the initial harvest of fruits, little pruning of Boote is required to retain its yield potential. Twigs that have dried up and become diseased, on the other hand, should be harvested regularly. The boot should always be trimmed from the bottom to the top. Guava leaves should be pruned according to the state of the blooms, twigs, and stems once a year, when light pruning the plant, the upper part of the twigs should be reduced to 10 cm. New twigs aid in germination following harvesting in this way.
During the first 3 to 4 years, radish, okra, brinjal, and carrot can be cultivated in the guava orchard. Leguminous crops such as gramme, legumes, and other legumes can also be farmed.
Fertilizers per acre (kg)
Crop maturity (Year) Cow dung that has been well degraded (in kg) Urea is a kind of urea that (in gm) SSP is an acronym for “Supporting (in gm) MOP is an abbreviation for “M (in gm)
10-20 150-200 500-1500 100-400 100-400 100-400 100-400 100-400 100-400 100-400 100-400 100-400 100-
25-40 300-600 1500-2000 600-1000 four to six years old
7–10 years 40–50 750–1000 2000–2500 1100-1500 1100-1500
50 1000 2500 1500 ten years and up
10 to 25 kg of country-made compost, 155 to 200 g of urea, 500 to 1600 g of single super phosphate, and 100 to 400 g of murate of potash per plant should be applied when the plants are 1 to 3 years old. 25 to 40 kg of Rudi (Desi Manure), 300 to 600 grammes of Urea, 1500 to 2000 grammes of Single Super Phosphate, and 600 to 1000 grammes of Murate of Potash should be treated per plant when it is 4 to 6 years old. 40 to 50 kg Rudi (Desi Manure), 750 to 1000 g Urea, 2000 to 2500 g Single Super Phosphate, and 1100 to 1500 g Murate of Potash should be applied per plant at the age of 7 to 10 years.
50 kg desi dung, 1000 g urea, 2500 g single superphosphate, and 1500 g mutate of potash should be applied per plant for plants older than ten years.
From May to June, and again from September to October, apply the full dose of Rudi (Desi Manure) and half doses of Urea, Single Super Phosphate, and Murata of Potash.
Control of weeds
Weed control is critical for the optimal development and yield of guava boot. In March, July, and September, apply Gramoxone 6 ml to prevent weed development. 1 litre per litre of water should be sprayed. Spray Glyphosate @ 1.6Ltr in 200Ltr of water per acre after weeds germinate (before the weeds flower and reach 15 to 20cm in height).
The first irrigation should be done right after planting, and the second irrigation should be done on the third day. Then, depending on the season and soil type, irrigation is required. Irrigation isn’t necessary for good, healthy orchards. In the summer, new plants need to be watered every week, and in the winter, they need to be watered every two to three weeks. Because excessive irrigation increases the chance of flower drop, the plant does not require much irrigation during flowering.
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Fruit fly plant care
Harmful pests and how to avoid them
Guava fruit fly is a major guava pest. Inside the fresh fruit, the female fly lays her eggs. Following that, fresh insects consume the fruit’s pulp, causing the fruit to decay and fall.
If a fruit fly attack develops in the orchard early, do not sow the crop during the rainy season. On-time harvesting. Don’t put off harvesting. Remove all infected branches and fruits from the field and destroy them. When the fruits are ripe, spray them with Fanvalerate@80ml/150Ltr of water once a week. On the third day following the Fanvalerate spray, harvest the fruit.
Mealybug: They feed on the sap from various areas of the plant, weakening it. If a sucking bug infestation is discovered, use 300 mL of Chlorpyriphos 50 EC. Mix it with 100 litres of water and spray it.
Pest guava branch
Guava branch pest is a significant nursery pest. The afflicted branch withers and dies.
If an infestation is discovered, use 500 mL of chlorpyrifos or 400 mL of quinalphos. Mix it with 100 litres of water and spray it.
Cheap is a dangerous and widespread guava pest. Adult and small insects feed on the plant’s sap, weakening it. Curling of the leaves and a loss of form are signs of a severe infestation. They eject a material that resembles honey drops. A black fungus forms on the afflicted leaves as a result.
Apply Dimethoate 20 mL or Methyl Demetan 20 mL if an infestation is discovered. Pour 10 litres of water into a spray bottle with sludge.
Dry diseases and how to avoid them
Drought: The guava plant gets infected with this fatal disease. Bute’s leaves begin to turn yellow and wither when it is attacked. The leaves will also fall if the attack is severe.
Allow no water to collect on the field to avoid this. By moving away from the damaged plants, you can remove and destroy them. In 10 Ltr of water, sprinkle 25 gm Copper Oxychloride or 20 gm Carbendazim near the soil.
Dark brown or black blotches emerge on the twigs due to anthracnose or wilting. On the fruits, little dark dots develop. Fruit rot occurs 2 to 3 days after infection.
Keep the field clean and destroy any plant parts or fruits that are harmed. Allow no standing water in the field. Spray Captan@300gm/100Ltr of water after pruning. Re-spray Captain after fruit development and every 10-15 days till fruit ripens. If an infestation is discovered in the field, mix 30 grammes of Copper Oxychloride with 10 litres of water and spray the infected tree.
Guava boots begin to bear fruit after 2-3 years of seeding. When the fruits are mature, they should be harvested. When the fruits are fully ripe, their colour begins to change from green to yellow. Fruit harvesting should be done at the appropriate time. Overripeness impairs the taste and quality of the fruits, hence they should not be allowed to ripen.
After the harvest
Fruits should be harvested. Following that, clean the fruits, split them by size, and pack them. Guava is a short-lived fruit. As a result, it should be sold in the market as soon as possible after harvesting. It should be packed in a cartoon fibre box, a different size cardboard box, or a bamboo basket.