Green manure farming: Green manure production methods
The green manure has been used to boost fertility and productivity from the beginning of time. Although the usage of green manure has declined as a result of the development of intensive farming systems and increased area under cash crops, green manure is still employed today due to the rising energy crisis, rising fertilizer prices, and restricted supply of alternative organic sources such as cow dung. The significance has grown even greater. Green manure is a term used in agriculture to describe an auxiliary crop that is primarily grown to increase the nutrients in the soil and provide organic matter. This sort of crop is frequently incorporated with the soil by ploughing it only when it is still green. Green manure improves soil fertility and protects the environment.
Green manure farming: Green manure production methods
The vital ingredients for plant growth found in soil are being lost as a result of constant exploitation. Green manure is a fantastic choice for compensating for them and maintaining the soil’s productive capacity. Green manure is created when green plants (pulses and other crops or their components) are pressed in the field to enhance the quantity of nitrogen or biomass in the soil. Green manure not only increases nitrogen availability in the soil, but also enhances the soil’s physical, chemical, and biological conditions. The problem of environmental and land pollution can be solved, farmers’ economic conditions can improve by lowering costs, there is a supply of micro-elements in the land, and soil fertility improves as well.
Green Manure Cultivation: How to Make Green Manure – What is Green Manure and How Can It Help You?
Green Manure: A Step-by-Step Guide
By plowing and suppressing pulses and non-pulse crops throughout their vegetative development cycle for the breakdown in the soil, green manure will boost soil fertility and productivity. In Indian agriculture, pulses have traditionally played a significant role. These crops fix nitrogen in the soil by allowing symbiotic bacteria in their root glands to use nitrogen from the atmosphere. The nitrogen that remains in the soil after the dependent plant has been harvested is utilized by the following crop. Aside from that, pulse crops hold a special place because of their unique features, such as enhancing soil fertility, providing nutritious fodder, and preventing soil erosion due to their high protein content.
Green manure’s advantages
Because of the amount of organic matter in the soil, green manure enhances the physical condition of the soil. The glands in the roots of pulse crops used for green manure are responsible for nitrogen growth. Which helps to keep nitrogen stable. As a result, the nitrogen content of the soil rises. Using dhaincha as green manure saves 60 kg of nitrogen per hectare and improves the physicochemical and biological qualities of the soil, both of which are important for long-term farming. Under various environmental conditions, the total amount of nitrogen is – 43.100 kg. The amount of nitrogen per hectare in the soil can be enhanced. Pulses crops consume 1/3 of the nitrogen in the soil and use it for their growth.
Green manure is not only a source of nitrogen and organic matter, but it also contains a wealth of other necessary elements.The soil becomes friable, improves air circulation, enhances water holding capacity, improves acidity/alkalinity, and minimizes soil erosion when green manure is used.
Green manure usage enhances the amount and activity of microorganisms in the soil, as well as the soil’s fertility and production potential.
Green manure also helps to limit the spread of soil-borne illnesses.
Nutrient build-up on the soil’s surface.
– An increase in nutritional availability.
– The subsurface has improved.
– Soil surface protection
Effect on the body:
– Nitrogen stabilization
– Weed control – Soil conservation improvements
– Alkaline and saline land improvement-Crop productivity increases.
Its use can also help to achieve sustainable farming by lowering the use of chemical fertilizers.
The relationship between pulse crops and soil –
- Pulse crops thrive well even in less fertile terrain due to their deep and robust roots.
- Reduces soil erosion by covering the area with leaves and stems.
- Pulse crops build up a lot of organic matter in the soil.
- Rhizobium bacteria may fix 60-150 kg nitrogen per hectare of pulses when present.
- Pulse crops cause a significant change in the physical and chemical qualities of the soil.
- As a result, microorganism activity and the availability of vital nutrients both rise.
Choosing the right crop
- The crop for green manure should be chosen with the soil climate and purpose in mind. The crops must have the following traits to produce green manure: – The crop should be able to grow quickly.
- For green manure, there should be such a crop. As a result, the stem, branches, and leaves are soft, allowing more biomass and nitrogen to be discovered in the soil through rapid decomposition. So that nutrients can be absorbed thoroughly, the crops should be rooted.
- Deep-rooted crops are required on alkaline and saline soils to improve internal drainage.
- By fixing free nitrogen in the environment, the symbiotic bacterial glands found in the roots of leguminous crops deliver nitrogen to the plants.
Drought resistance and waterlogging tolerance are required of the crop.
- Diseases and pests are less prevalent, and seed production capacity is higher.
- Two crops, in addition to green manure, can be utilized for additional purposes.
- Pulse crops such as Sunai, Dhincha, Urd, Moong, Arhar, Gram, Lentil, Pea, Cowpea, Moth, Khesari, and Kulthi are used to make green manure.
Cultivation of Sunai K-12 species is one of the most common green manure crops. For sandy or loamy soils with good drainage, this is the best pulse green manure crop. It can be sown during the rainy season, from May to July, or by irrigation. In a one-hectare field, 80-90 kg of seed is sown. 30-40 kg seed per hectare is sufficient for a mixed crop. It’s a weed-suppressing root crop that grows quickly and is mushy. It is reversed in the field after 40-50 days of seeding. Sunai produces 20-30 tonnes of green matter and 85-125 kilograms of nitrogen per acre of soil. Sanai types like Ankur Swastik and Shailesh are also appropriate.
Cultivation of dhaincha
It’s a type of pulse crop. It thrives in a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. It grows to a height of 1.5 to 1.8 meters in a short time even while submerged. This crop can also withstand being submerged in water for up to 60 cm for a week. In these conditions, lateral roots sprout from the dhaincha’s stem, preventing it from falling even in heavy winds. It can withstand drought after germination. It grows well in both alkaline and saline soils. Green manure requires 60 kg of dhaincha seed per acre. In 45 days, Usar obtains 20-25 tonnes of green matter and 85-105 kg of nitrogen soil from Dhaiche. Reversing the dhaicha before seeding paddy kills the weeds. The variety Narendra Dhaicha-1 is ideal.
Guar is a pulse and root crop that is sown in the Kharif season. It can be grown well in locations with limited rainfall and sandy soil. By spreading 25 kg seed per hectare, you can get 20-25 tonnes of green matter.
Urad and moong cultivation
In light loamy or loamy soils with sufficient drainage, these crops can be grown in jayed and Kharif. After plucking these beans, they can be used in the field as green manure. In Uttar Pradesh, they can be used as green manure in part. It is necessary to spread 15-20 kg of maggot/urd seed per hectare. Moong and urd produce 10-12 tonnes of green matter per hectare.
In irrigated locations, this pulse crop can be cultivated partially as green manure. It grows nicely in well-drained sandy loam soils and is quite soft. Waterlogging is a problem for this crop. Sowing 25-35 kg seed in one hectare yields 15-18 tonnes of green matter. In addition to these crops, green manure crops such as Moth, Kulthi, Junglee, Neel, Senji, Khesari, and Berseem can be planted. In the form of fertilizers, Sunai, Dhaincha, Urd, and Moong are commonly used.
Green manure crop production capacity
Improved green manure species for Sanai and Dhaincha
Narendra Sanai-1: Quick biodegradation, giving 60-80 kg/ha nitrogen in 45 days in soil rich in organic matter, and eco-friendly. Green organic matter seed production capacity of 25-30 ton/ha 16.0 kg/ha per plant Root glands that are more and more effective, tolerant of acidic and somewhat alkaline soil, and also suited for the production of fiber and seeds in addition to green manure, are becoming increasingly common.
1st Pant Dhincha In 60 days, you’ll have more green and dry organic matter, more effective root glands, and higher seed output per plant.
Hisar Dhincha-1 has a high organic matter content, produces more green and dry organic matter in 45 days, produces moderate seed, and has more and more effective root glands per plant.
In the year 2003, the aforementioned species were released on a countrywide scale. If these species’ seeds are not readily available, other local Sanai and Dhincha species can be used as green manure.
Green manure crop manure and fertilizer management
It is beneficial to inoculate certain Rhizobium cultures into pulse crops used for green manure to improve the activity of microorganisms in the soil. These crops are highly useful in preserving ecological balance by providing 10-15 kg nitrogen and 40-50 kg phosphorus per hectare in low and normal fertility soil. Climate, crop growth, and agricultural operations all influence the capacity of different green manure crops.
Green manure application methods
In the same field, green manure is grown: The crop is planted in the same field where the manure will be applied, and it is plowed with soil turning plow and mixed with the soil. Crops such as Sunai, Dhincha, Guar, Moong, Urd, and others are produced in this technique to make green manure.
Green manure produced on the farm: When crops are grown in other fields and harvested from there, the field where green manure is applied becomes available. Those who turn the dirt, plow it with a plow, and press it must be included in it. The leaves, twigs, and other parts of trees, plants, and shrubs are grown in forests or other locations are combined on the field in this way. Green manure crops include Sanai, Dhincha, Moong, Urd, Moth, Jowar, Cowpea, Junglee, Neel Berseem, and Shinji, among others. The following table shows the production capacity of various green manure crops –
name of crop ton/ha of green matter Percentage of Nitrogen (%) Received Nitrogen (kg/ha)
Sunai 20-30 0.43 86-129
Dhencha 20-25 0.42 84-105
Urad 10-12 0.41 41-49
Moong 8-10 0.48 38-48
Guar 20-25 0.34 68-85
Cowpea 15-18 0.49 74-88
Kulthi 8-10 0.33 26-33
nil 8-10 0.78 62-78
Complete instructions on how to manufacture earthworm compost at home
1. Spatial Method — In this method, the green manure crop is grown in the same field as the green manure. This strategy is used in locations where there is sufficient rainfall or reliable irrigation. It is turned over in the soil throughout the vegetative growth period (40-50 days) before flowering in this approach. Plowing at the right time suppresses the mixed green manure crop in the field.
2. Green manure of green leaves — In this approach, green leaves and tender branches are picked and placed in the field, where they are plowed into the soil. Even if there is little moisture in the soil, it rots. This approach is useful in low-rainfall locations.
Green manure quality improvement measures
1. Choosing a suitable crop – A appropriate crop must be chosen based on meteorological and soil conditions. In both dacha and normal soils, good quality green manure is derived from both Sanai and dhaincha crops in submerged, alkaline, and saline soils. Other crops, such as Mung, Urd, and Cowpea, do not provide the green matter.
Also see: How to Use Green Manure, Methods of Using Green Manure.
2. When to revert green manure in the field– Reversing or plowing crops 6-8 weeks after sowing is done to get the greenest matter. As plants grow older, the amount of fiber in their branches rises, making organic matter decomposition take longer.
3. Sowing or transplanting the following crop after using green manure –
The breakdown process is enhanced in paddy-growing areas due to the humid climate and high temperatures. As a result, paddy can be sown just after the green manure crop has been reversed in the field. However, the crop should not be older than 40-45 days for this. The highest yield is obtained in salty and alkaline soils by transplanting paddy soon after transplanting at the 45-day stage of Daichi.
4. Proper Fertilizer Management — Hyacinth compost is a lifesaver for plants.
Nitrogenous fertilizers at a rate of 15-20 kg/ha are beneficial in low-fertility soils. The activity of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria is increased when Rajobium culture is used.