Black Grapes: How to Grow Them
Learn how to grow black grapes and earn lakhs of rupees.
Everyone’s mouth waters when they hear the word grape. It has a luscious flavor that people enjoy. Grapes are not only pleasant to eat, but they are also highly good for your health. It has a great demand in the market due to its taste and qualities. Although there are many different colored grapes available, the majority of black grapes are in high demand. The reason for this is that this grape draws people owing to its color, as well as its qualities, which are superior to those of conventional grapes. As a result, you should now be able to earn lakhs by planting a black grape orchard.
Grow once, and you’ll get the benefits for ten to twenty years.
It is said that eating black grapes can help you lose weight. Grapes are also utilized in the production of wine, jams, juices, and jellies. As a result, black grapes are in high demand on the market. The rate of black grapes is larger than that of regular green grapes in major areas where vegetables and fruits are sold. Its wholesale rate is likewise high, in addition to the retail rate. This is why black grape farming is proving to be more beneficial than green grape production. It has the potential to make lakhs of rupees if professionally produced. Please tell us how you plan to benefit from a black grape orchard.
Where in the country has the most grape production / where is the most grape cultivation?
Nashik is recognized as India’s grape capital and one of the country’s top grape exporters. The major producing states, on the other hand, are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Mizoram, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh.
Black grape cultivars that have been improved
Arka Shyam It’s a cross between Bangalore Blue and Kala Champa. It produces berries that are medium in length, black in appearance, oval-spherical in shape, seedy, and mild in flavor. Anthracnose resistance is present in this strain. It’s good for both eating and creating wine.
Arka Neel Mani is a hybrid between Thompson Seedless and Black Champa. It has black seedless berries with crunchy pulp and 20-22 percent TSS. This cultivar is resistant to anthracnose. The average yield per hectare is 28 tonnes. It can be used for both brewing and eating.
Arka Krishna is a hybrid between Thompson Seedless and Black Champa. It has black berries that are seedless, oval-round and contain 20-21 percent TSS. The average yield is 33 tons per hectare. This type can be used to make juice.
Arka Rajasi is a hybrid of Angoor Kalan and Black Champa. Its berries are dark brown, uniform, spherical, and seedy, with a TSS content of 18-20%. This cultivar is resistant to anthracnose. The average yield per hectare is 38 tonnes. This cultivar has a lot of potential for export.
Bangalore Blue is a type grown in the state of Karnataka. The berries are tiny, dark purple, oval, seedy, and have a thin skin. With 16-18 percent TSS, the juice is purple in color, transparent, and sweetly perfumed. The fruit is of good quality and is mostly used in the production of juice and wine. It is anthracnose resistant but vulnerable to downy mildew.
Pink: Tamil Nadu grows this type. It produces berries that are tiny, dark purple, spherical, and seedy. TSS is between 18 to 20%. This is a high-quality cultivar that is utilized for table use. It is not crack resistant, but it is prone to corrosion and mildew. 1012 t/ha is the average yield.
Read more : Linseed cultivation in 2022
Climate and soil
Grapes have a very strong root structure. As a result, it grows in stony, sandy to loamy, shallow to deep soils, although it has been discovered that sandy, loamy soils with adequate drainage are suitable for grape production. Summers are ideal for its cultivation because they are hot, dry, and lengthy.
Stem-based planting(तना आधारित रोपण )
Cutting cuttings are the most common method of propagation for grapes. Cuttings are taken from the chopped twigs in the month of January. Cuttings should only be obtained from mature, healthy twigs. In most cases, the length is between 23 and 45 cm, with 4 to 6 knots. Long pens are required. Keep in mind that the pen’s bottom cut should be immediately below the knot, and the top cut should be oblique when creating it. These cuttings are planted in elevated beds above the ground that have been thoroughly prepared. In the month of January, one-year-old rooted cuttings can be transplanted from the nursery and planted in the garden.
Vines to be planted (लगाए जाने वाली बेलें)
Before you begin planting, get the soil tested. The spacing between the vines is determined by the variety and cultivation method. Keeping all of this in mind, measure 90 and 90 cms. They should be supplied 1/2 part soil, 1/2 part rotting cow dung manure, and 30 grams of chlorpyrifos, 1 kg, after excavating the size pits. Fill it with super phosphate and 500 grams of potassium sulphate, for example. In the month of January, plant 1 year old rooted cuttings in these pits. Water the vine as soon as it is planted.
Trimming and pruning of vines (लताओं की ट्रिमिंग और छंटाई)
Cultivation and trimming are required to provide a consistent crop from the vines as well as optimum shape. Cutting off the vine’s undesired parts to give it a good form is termed cultivation, and pruning any section to ensure proper distribution to the vine’s fruit-bearing branches is called pruning.
Growing grape vines (अंगूर की बेलें उगाना)
Grapes are grown using methods such as pandal, barber, telephone, niffin, and head, among others. However, the pandal approach has proven to be more useful in the commercial world. The vines are stretched on wire mesh supported by concrete pillars at a height of 2.1 – 2.5 m to be handled by the pandal method. To reach the net, only one warp is created. The weft is cut as it reaches the wire net, allowing the lateral branches to grow. Secondary branches grow 60 cm in all directions from the enormous parent branches. Eight to ten tertiary branches will sprout from the secondary branches in this manner, and these branches will bear fruit.
Vines are pruned (बेलें काट दी जाती हैं)
Pruning the vines at the correct time is critical if you want a consistent and good produce. When the vine is dormant, pruning can be done, but it must be completed before the shoots begin to open. Pruning is usually done in the month of January. The fruit-bearing section of the vine is pruned to some extent during the pruning procedure. It is dependent on the specific kind. Some spurs should be removed, leaving only one or two eyes, depending on the variety. Renewal spurs are what they’re called. Only the fruited branches are often preserved as a renewal spur. Remove sick and wilted branches while pruning, and spray the vines with blightox 0.2 percent.
Irrigate as necessary.
Because the vine is dormant from November to December, watering is not required, however irrigation is required after pruning. Water is required until flowering and fruit production is complete (March to May). Because water scarcity at this period has a negative impact on both production and quality. Irrigation should be done every 7-10 days during this time, bearing in mind the temperature and environmental circumstances. Watering should be discontinued as soon as the fruit starts to ripen, or the fruits may burst and spoil. Even after the fruits have been harvested, one irrigation must be performed.
Required nutrient quantity of manure and fertilizer
The grape vine takes in a large amount of nutrients from the soil. As a result, manure and fertilizers must be used to replenish the nutrients in the soil in order to keep the soil fertile and produce a high-quality crop on a consistent basis. 3 x 3 m and made using the pandal method. 500 grams of nitrogen, 700 grams of potassium murate, 700 grams of potassium sulphate, and 50-60 kg of grapes planted 5 years apart. It is necessary to use dung manure. Half of the nitrogen and potash, as well as all of the phosphorus, should be given in pulses immediately after pruning, in the last week of January. Only give the rest after the fruit has ripened. Irrigate as soon as the manure and nutrients have been thoroughly mixed into the soil. Apply compost to the main stem at a depth of 15-20 cm.
Read more : Green manure farming: production methods
How can you improve the quality of your fruit?
Edible grapes of good quality should have medium to large seedless grains with distinct color, flavor, taste, and texture. These features are mostly dependent on the variety. However, the following approaches can improve the quality of grapes more than predicted.
Determination of Crop
Pruning is the cheapest and most straightforward method of crop identification. Fruits that are overripe have a negative impact on the quality and ripening process. As a result, it is preferable to leave 60-70 bunches on vines treated by the Babar method and 12-15 bunches on vines processed by the head approach. As a result, soon after fruiting, remove more than the number of clusters.
Method of the ring
0.5 cm from any section of the vine, branch, creeper, sub-branch, or stem is used in this procedure. In the form of rings, the bark of the width is removed. The purpose determines when the bark should be removed. For maximum fruit size, the bark should be removed one week before flowering, shortly after fruit set to improve fruit size, and at the time of fruit ripening for more beautiful color. When the 0.5 cm wide fruit forms on the main stem, the bark should be removed as soon as possible.
Application of Growth Regulators
The use of gibberellic acid doubles the grain size in seedless cultivars. After complete flowering, 45 ppm in Pusa seedless variety. 450 milligrams per ten litres 45 ppm of beauty seedless mane half flower blooms in water. Also, when half flowers blossom in the Parlet variety, 30 ppm should be utilized. The bunches are either sprayed with gibberellic acid solution or immersed in it for half a minute. If the bunches reach 500 ppm, 5 ml will be used. The acidity of the fruit is reduced when it is dipped in ethephone per 10 liters of water. In colorful variants, the fruits ripen earlier and the grain color improves. The grapes can ripen 1 to 2 weeks earlier if Dormax 3 is sprayed in early January.
Harvesting and production of fruits
Because grapes do not ripen after plucking, they should all be plucked at the same time when they are ready to eat or sell. Fruit ripening is marked by an increase in sugar and a decrease in acidity. Fruits should be harvested in the morning or evening. Sort the bunches into categories to get a fair price. Remove any cracked or rotting grains from the bunches before packing. After three years, a well-kept grape vineyard bears fruit, which can last for two to three decades. Perlet, a 14-15-year-old orchard variety, can generate 30-35 tons per hectare, whereas Pusa seedless can give 15-20 tons per hectare.
What is the revenue and yield?
India has the largest grape production per hectare in the world, at 30 tonnes per hectare. Although the output is dependent on the type, soil, and temperature, a fully established orchard can generate 30 to 50 tons of grapes using the above scientific approaches. If we talk about earnings, the minimum price on the market is 50 rupees per kilogram, and if the average yield is 30 tonnes per acre, the total income is 30*1000*50 = 15,00,000 rupees. Even after deducting the maximum expenditure of Rs 5,00,000, the net profit comes to Rs 10,00,000.
Grapes are produced throughout India. In the last few years, this neighborhood has been steadily growing. The main viticulture-producing states in the south are Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Horticulture is practiced in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in North India.
Farmer brothers are abandoning traditional farming in favor of alternative farming. If you wish to plant grapes, you should first learn about the climate. Summers that are hot, dry, and long are ideal for growing grapes. However, a temperature that is too high can be harmful. Disease develops as a result of high humidity combined with high temperatures. Fruit development, as well as the texture and flavour of ripe grapes, are all influenced by the weather. Rain or clouds in the sky during the ripening of grapes is extremely damaging because the fruit cracks and the quality of the fruit suffers greatly. As a result, in North India, early maturing types are preferred.
Land selection for wine production
A minimum of 4-5 hectares of land should be available for viticulture or horticulture. Grapes can be grown in a number of soil types. Grapes have a very strong root structure. As a result, it grows in stony, sandy to loamy, shallow to deep soils, however it has been discovered that sandy, loamy soil with adequate drainage is optimal for grape production. It is preferable to avoid cultivating it in clay soil. Salinity tolerance is variable in grapes.