Diseases of main oilseed crops and how to avoid them

Spread the love

Diseases of main oilseed crops and how to avoid them

The category of oilseed crops includes a wide range of crops. Farmer brothers profit handsomely from the production of all of these crops. Because the market price of oilseed crops is higher than the market price of the other crops. Both the Rabi and Kharif seasons are used to grow oilseed crops. All of these crops are grown according to the seasons in various locations. However, several diseases are occasionally identified in these crops, causing significant harm to the crops. As a result, it is critical to prevent these illnesses from the start to receive the best output from the crop.

Today, we’ll discuss illnesses and how to prevent them in some of the most important oilseed crops grown during the Rabi and Kharif seasons.

Mustard’s major diseases

mustard

The main oilseed crop grown during the Rabi season is mustard. Only in North India is this crop grown in great quantities. The mustard crop is affected by several illnesses.

Ocher white

In several places, white Gerui disease in mustard crops is referred to as Dholiya disease. This occurs as a result of the season’s unusual rise and fall in temperature. White dots appear on the lower surface of the plant’s leaves when this disease strikes. As a result, the plants’ leaves turn yellow and begin to dry. The plants eventually stop growing. The plants’ branches get distorted as a result of this illness. As a result, the plants are unable to produce pods. This has an immediate impact on plant output.

Precautionary measures

  • To prevent this disease in mustard plants, the seeds should be grown after being treated with metalaxyl.
  • Aside from that, certified seeds must be chosen and grown at the appropriate period.

Sign for a letter

The disease affects the leaves of mustard plants. When this illness is administered, small yellowish-brown dots appear on the leaves of plants. The size of these patches grows larger as the disease progresses. As a result, the plants stop growing. In addition, the amount of beans generated on the plants is reduced.

Precautionary measures

  • To avoid the disease, two per cent of the seeds should be treated with Thiram medication and grown in the beginning.
  • If the disease is found in a standing crop, the plants should be treated with a 0.2 per cent Mancozeb M-45 solution mixed in water.
  • In addition to 0.2 per cent Mancozeb M-45, a suitable amount of copper oxychloride and Ridomil Dawa should be used.

Hard

Mustard plants are susceptible to this insect illness. When this illness is applied, small yellow or orange spots form on the leaves of the plants. Long black patches form on the stems of the plants as the disease progresses. As a result, the plant’s leaves dry out and fall off prematurely. The plant also dries up and dies after a few days.

Precautionary measures

  • A reasonable dosage of 0.2 per cent Mancozeb M-45 should be sprayed on the plants to avoid this disease.
  • Aside from that, disease-free seed kinds should be chosen and produced.

Lehi’s major diseases (Tauria)

The states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are the primary producers of Lahi. Lahi is grown in the form of a crunch crop by farmer brothers. Its plants are also infected with a variety of illnesses. If the preventive is not done at the appropriate time, the plants will suffer a great deal of damage.

Moylan

Insects carry the Moyla disease seen in Lahi plants. This disease’s pests stay on the leaves of the plants, sucking their juice to stop them from growing. As a result, the plants produce a very small number of beans. In addition, the plants are unable to thrive.

Precautionary measures

  • To prevent this illness, sprinkle an adequate amount of methyl parathion, carbaryl, or malathion powder on the plants as soon as the disease occurs.
  • Aside from that, a suitable amount of chlorpyrifos and dimethoate insecticides should be mixed with water and sprayed on the plants.

Illness in the shadows

The fungus spreads the shadowing disease that affects Lahi plants. White brown dots occur on the leaves of the plants at the start of this illness. As the disease worsens, their size grows. After a few days, a white powder is deposited on all of the plant’s leaves. As a result, the photosynthesis process is halted in the plants. Plant growth comes to a halt.

Precautionary measures

  • When the disease first occurs, 20 kg of sulphur powder should be administered to the plants to prevent it.
  • Aside from that, the infected plants should be sprayed with a sufficient amount of soluble sulphur or Baratheon.
  • Neem arc should be sprayed on the plants to naturally avoid the disease. Plants that are sick should be uprooted and killed.
Read more : Why Micro irrigation is significant for India.

The most common diseases found in moles

During the Kharif season, sesame is grown in most regions. Sesame is also grown as a companion crop. Its plants are more susceptible to a variety of pest and bacterial illnesses. Those who should be avoided.

Illness caused by pod borer

Insects disseminate the pod borer disease in sesame plants. The most noticeable effect of this illness is on the plant’s yield. This disease’s pests boreholes in the plant’s pods and sabotage it by consuming the grains inside. As the illness advances, the plant’s pods become injured in enormous numbers.

Precautionary measures

  • When the disease shows on the plants, an adequate dosage of quinalphos should be sprayed to prevent it.
  • Aside from that, it’s a good idea to spray the plants with an appropriate dose of Carbaryl or Sevimol.
  • Neem oil should be sprinkled two to three times at a 15-day interval starting 10 days before pod formation for natural weed control.

Fly on the cheek

Cheek fly disease is spread by insects in sesame plants. The gidar of this condition looks to be pale in hue. Which has a more noticeable influence on the plants during flowering. This disease causes the most damage to plants. The blooms that grow as a result of this disease resemble knots. As a result, pods are unable to form on the plants.

Precautionary measures

  • A sufficient dosage of Monocrotophos or Carbaryl should be sprayed on the plants twice at a 15-day interval to avoid this disease.
  • Neem Arc should be sprayed on the plants at the time of flowering for natural control.

Philo

Because of the leaf rot insect, the effect of Philodi disease on sesame plants is more widespread. During blossoming, the disease’s impact on plants is more obvious. When a plant is infected with a disease, the blooms on the plant turn into leaves. The plant’s length continues to grow. Aside from that, the plant’s branches begin to grow wildly. And clusters begin to develop on the plants’ higher parts. Pods do not form on the plants as a result of the disease infestation. And, if it is created, it is done in extremely little quantities. Those who do not progress. Which has a direct impact on plant output.

Precautionary measures

  • The prevention of leaf rot pests on plants should begin as soon as possible to avoid this illness.
  • When the disease is visible in the standing crop, an appropriate dosage of Metasystax should be sprayed on the plants.

Crush the leaves

Foliar Kuchan disease is a viral disease that affects sesame plants. The plant’s leaves turn a dark green colour when the disease first appears. Which appears to be quite small and slanted downward. Because of whiteflies, the effect of this illness on plants is more obvious. The size of the plants begins to shrink as a result of this disease. The plants dry up and die before the pods develop as the disease spreads.

Precautionary measures

  • A sufficient dose of Methyl Dimethan should be sprayed on the plants to avoid this illness.
  • Aside from that, the plants should be treated with an adequate dose of Thiomethoxam 25 WG or Acetyoprid 20 SP.
  • Control of whitefly disease on plants should be done at the beginning to prevent this disease.

Diseases that affect safflower

Oilseed safflower is grown as a crop. Safflower oil can be utilised in a variety of ways. Farmers think safflower farming is more profitable. Its plants are also infected with a variety of illnesses. The influence can be noticed in plant yield.

Gerri’s illness

Because of the uncontrollable shift in the weather, the effect of gerui disease on safflower plants is obvious. Yellowish-brown dots appear on the edges of the plant’s leaves as a result of this disease. As the disease advances, plant growth comes to a halt.

Precautionary measures

  • A suitable dose of Mancozeb or Zeeneb should be mixed with water and sprayed on the plants to prevent this illness.

Borer of fruits

Fruit borer disease has an effect on safflower plants after flowering. The larva of the bug that causes this illness enters the plant’s buds and destroys them. The direct influence of which can be seen in plant yield. As the disease spreads, the entire crop will be wiped out.

Precautionary measures

  • Deltamethrin or indosulfan should be sprayed on the plants as soon as the disease appears to prevent the spread of the disease.
  • Neem oil or neem arc should be sprayed on the plants twice in a 10-day interval for natural weed control.

Phantom disease

The fungus in safflower plants spreads Bhabhutia disease. Small white-brown dots form on the plants’ leaves at the start of the disease. However, as the condition worsens, the size of these patches grows larger. After a few days, a white powder is deposited on all of the plant’s leaves. As a result, the photosynthesis process is halted in the plants. Plant growth comes to a halt.

Precautionary measures

  • When the disease first occurs, 20 kg of sulphur powder should be administered to the plants to prevent it.
  • Plants should be sprayed with neem arc to avoid disease naturally. Plants that are sick should be uprooted and killed.
  • All oilseed crops are susceptible to a few diseases. Insecticides of the same type are used to prevent them.

Termite

Termite damage can be seen in the plants of all varieties of oilseed crops at any time. However, its impact is most noticeable during seed germination and crop ripening. The pests that cause this illness attack the plant’s roots and kill them before they can germinate. The sprouts, on the other hand, kill the plant by cutting it close to the ground’s surface. The entire crop is devastated as a result of the spread of this illness.

Precautionary measures

  • To prevent this disease, mix an adequate amount of Vivaria bassiana medicine with cow dung, and then mix it in the soil after putting it in the field after around eight to ten days.
  • Neem cake should be scattered in the fields and mixed in with the soil in an appropriate amount.
  • In fields where termite damage is more obvious, dung manure should not be used.

Jigsaw puzzle fly

Sawfly illness has a greater impact on mustard, lahi, and yellow mustard. This disease’s larva consumes the plant’s leaves and destroys them. As a result, huge pores begin to form in the plant’s leaves. Holes appear in the leaves of all plants as the disease proceeds. As a result, the photosynthesis process is halted in the plants. At the same moment, plant growth comes to a halt.

Precautionary measures

  • One kilogramme of Bacillus thuringiensis should be sprinkled with 400 to 500 litres of water once the disease emerges on the plants.
  • Aside from that, spraying plants with a suitable amount of Malathion, Dichlorovas, and Quinalphas is also effective.
  • Deep ploughing of the fields should be done at the beginning for natural management, and the field should be left open to sunshine.
  • Pheromone traps should be placed in four to five locations across the field after the illness is visible on the plants.

Sudsy hairy

Katra is another name for Hairy Sudi. The larva of the disease-causing bug eats the plant’s leaves, causing damage to the plant. This disease’s pests are black, yellow, and spotted. Who has a lot of hair on their body? As the disease advances, the plants lose their leaves and eventually die. As a result, the photosynthesis process is halted in the plants.

Precautionary measures

  • A sufficient amount of monocrotophos, methyl-o-methane, or dimethoate mixed with water should be sprayed on the plants to prevent this illness.
  • Spraying azadirachtin, i.e. neem oil, on the plants two to three times at a 5-day interval is a natural technique to control.
  • Aside from that, the plants should be sprayed with two to three sprays of surf solution. Plant transplanting should also be done at the appropriate time.

A bug that lives in leaf tunnels

Almost all types of oilseed crops are affected by the leaf tunnel insect. Only the leaves of the plants are affected by this illness. This disease’s bugs consume the green parts of the plants’ leaves. White transparent tunnel-like grooves appear in the plant’s leaves as a result. All of the leaves become transparent as the disease advances. Those who are prone to breaking and falling. Plant growth is halted as a result.

Precautionary measures

  • Immediately after the disease appears on the plants, 500 mL Monocrotophos 36 per cent SL should be mixed with 600 to 700 litres of water and sprayed on the plants to prevent the disease.
  • Diseased plants’ leaves should be pulled and destroyed. Aside from that, disease-free types of seeds should be chosen.
Read more : Advanced wheat production technologies

Alternaria leaf spot is a disease that affects the leaves of the Alternaria

Alternaria leaf spot is a disease that affects all oilseed crops. This disease is propagated by fungus in plants. The effect of which is immediately noticeable on the plants. The plant’s leaves develop light brown patches as a result of the disease’s invasion. As the condition proceeds, these spots become larger. As a result, huge pores begin to form in the plant’s leaves. As a result, the plants stop growing.

Precautionary measures

  • To prevent this disease, the seed should first be treated with Thiram before being transplanted.
  • If the disease is found in standing plants, a solution of two kilogrammes of Mancozeb mixed with 700 litres of water should be sprayed on the plants at a pace of one hectare per hectare.
  • Spraying Copper Oxychloride, Ziram, and Zineb in the right amounts are also useful.
  • There should be an equal space between plants when they are planted. Trichoderma should also be sprayed on the land before transplantation for cleansing.

Painted cockroach

Pests spread the painted bug illness in oilseed crops. The difference in temperature causes this illness impact. Its bug has a black, orange, and red speckled appearance. The disease’s bugs drink the juice from the plant’s leaves. As a result, the number of grains in the plants’ pods decreases dramatically. In addition, the plants are unable to thrive.

Precautionary measures

  • Spraying a suitable dose of Dimethoate, Methyl-O-Dimetan, or Monocrotophos on the plants at the commencement of the disease will help to prevent it.
  • After the illness shows on the plants, neem oil should be treated two to three times at a 5-day interval for natural.

Mahu

Mahu disease spreads in oilseed crops as a result of weather fluctuations. This disease’s pests destroy the plant’s leaves by sucking the sap. As a result, the plant’s leaves become yellow and begin to fall. This disease’s pests appear to be little. Which are found on plants in a bunch. The pests that cause this disease halt their growth by sucking the juice from the plant’s leaves as well as the soft areas. As a result, the plant stops growing.

Precautionary measures

  • A sufficient dosage of monocrotophos or dimethoate should be sprayed on the plants to avoid this disease.
  • For natural control, an appropriate amount of azadirachtin should be sprayed on the plants.
  • Aside from that, if the illness is visible, 5 pheromone traps per hectare should be placed in the field.

These are illnesses and pesticides that are employed in the primary oilseed crops, as well as how to prevent them. Which farmer brothers can take good products while keeping their crops disease-free employing this method?

Leave a Comment