Cultivation of soybeans – The complete process

Spread the love

Soybean cultivation is advanced in this way.

Cultivation of soybeans

Soybean is a oilseed and glandular crop, and it is a significant source of protein, with a protein content of roughly 40% and a fat content of up to 20%. Soybean farming is a significant contributor to India’s economy. Despite the fact that commercial soybean production began in India roughly four decades ago, soybean has established itself as one of the country’s key oilseed crops. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh are the primary producers of soybean. The Indian Soybean Research Center is opened in the Madhya Pradesh city of Indore. Where numerous forms of soybean research are carried out. in this article we will provide you with all information regarding improved soybean cultivation.

  • Farm preparation
  • Improved varieties
  • Seed treatment
  • Sowing method
  • Manures and Fertilizers
  • Crop circle
  • Weed control
  • Disease and Pest Management

Soybean field preparation

Soil testing

The primary constituents of soil such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash, secondary nutrients such as Sulphur, calcium, and magnesium, and micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and boron as well as pH are all important for balanced fertilizer management and soil health. Additionally, have the organic stuff analyzed.

Summer plowing

  • Using a soil-reversing plow, deep plowing of vacant fields should be done from March to May 15 at a depth of 9 to 12 inches.
  • Aeration, water absorption and holding power, soil friability, soil structure, and other physical attributes of the soil are improved.
  • It will aid in the control of weeds.
  • Aids in the prevention and control of insects and illnesses.
  • It helps with fertilizer control as well as biodegradation.

Soybean Varieties That Have Been Improved

J.S-335

This is soybean technology at its most mature. This species’ seed can be obtained in 95 to 100 days. This seed is unique in that it has a fair weight, weighing 10 to 13 grains per 100 grams. This seed has a production capability of 25-30 quintals per hectare. It has a higher disease resistance than other seeds.

J.s93-05

This species has a seed output potential of 20 to 25 quintals per hectare. It takes 90 to 95 days to complete. This species’ seed also weighs 100 grams and contains 13 seeds.

Characteristics
Purple flowers on a semi-finite growth variety.
There are fewer beans that are cracking.

NRC-86

White flowers, brownish umbels and weeps, finite growth, resistant to girdle beetle and stem-fly, moderately resistant to charcoal root and pod blight, and resistant to girdle beetle and stem-fly. The species has a seed output potential of 20 to 25 quintals per hectare. It takes 90 to 95 days to complete. This species’ seed also weighs 100 grams per 13 seeds.

NRC-12

This species has a seed output potential of 20 to 25 quintals per hectare. It takes 90 to 95 days to complete. This species’ seed also weighs 100 grams per 13 seeds. Slim growth, purple flowers, girdle beetle, stem-fly and yellow mosaic
resistance.

NRC-7

This species has a seed output potential of 20 to 25 quintals per hectare. It takes 90 to 95 days to complete. This species’ seed also weighs 100 grams per 13 seeds. Slim growth, resistance to pod splitting, violet blooms, girdle beadle, and stem-fly tolerance are all characteristics of this plant.

J.s95-60

This species has a seed output potential of 20 to 25 quintals per hectare. It takes 80 to 85 days to complete. This species’ seed also weighs 100 grams per 13 seeds. Semi-dwarf cultivar with purple blooms and non-cracking pods. Height 45-50 cm.

J.s20-29

This species has a seed output potential of 20 to 25 quintals per hectare. It takes 90 to 95 days to complete. This species’ seed also weighs 100 grams pers 13 seeds. It has the following characteristics: Purple flower, yellow grain, yellow virus disease, charcoal root, bacterial pest, and insect resistant bacterial rear and insect resistant features.

Germination Capacity(अंकुरण क्षमता)

Before sowing, the seed’s germination capacity (70%) must be determined.
Take 100 grains from three different locations and place them in a wet sack to determine the average germination capacity.

Seed treatment(बीजोपचार)

Treat the seed with 3 grams of Thyrum $ Carbendazim (2:1), 2.5 grams of Thirum $ Carboxin, 3 grams of Thiomethaxam 78 ws, or 5 grams of Trichoderma viride per kilogram of seed.

Read more : Business and new mushroom cultivation methods

Organic fertilizers(जैव उर्वरक)

A few hours before sowing, inoculate the seed with 5 gm Rhizobium culture (Brady japonicum) and 5 gm PSB (Sphur Gholak) at a rate of 5 gm per kilogram seed.
PSB Spher is converted into a soluble condition and made available to the plants by mixing it in the field at a rate of 2.50 kg per acre.

Timely sowing

Sowing should take place during the last week of June and the first week of July, when there has been 4-5 inches of rain.

Row-by-row sowing

Soybean is a oilseed and glandular crop, and it is a significant source of protein, with a protein content of roughly 40% and a fat content of up to 20%. Soybean farming is a significant contributor to India's economy. Despite the fact that commercial soybean production began in India roughly four decades ago, soybean has established itself as one of the country's key oilseed crops. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh are the primary producers of soybean. The Indian Soybean Research Center is opened in the Madhya Pradesh city of Indore. Where numerous forms of soybean research are carried out. in this article we will provide you with all information regarding improved soybean cultivation.

Less common species, such as Js. 93-05, J.S. For 95-60, and others, should have a row to row space of up to 40 cm. when sowing popular variants like Js. 335, NRC 7 and J.S. 45cm are for 97-52. Maintain a safe distance.

Seed Quantity

Calculate the amount of seed to sow based on the size of the grains. Keep it around 4-4.5 lakhs per hectare.
Use a seed rate of 60-70 kg per hectare for small grain varieties.
The seed quantity rate for large grain varieties is 80-90 kg. Per hectare
Sow by riser seeder planter by ridge (drain) weed method, raised bed planter, or broad bed furrow method in deep black terrain and high rainfall areas.

Balanced Fertilizer Management

When it comes to fertilizer management, it’s best to utilize chemical fertilizers only if a soil test shows that they’re needed.
Make use of the Nadep manure with chemical fertilizers, cow dung containing a maximum of organic resources (10-20 t/ha), or vermi compost (5 t/ha).
Use a 20:60 – 80:40:20 balanced chemical fertilizer dose under balanced chemical fertilizer management (Nitrogen: Phosphor: Potash: Sulphur).
Place the necessary amount of fertilizer in the field before the last plowing and thoroughly mix it into the soil.
Use 50 kg of urea per demand with a thread starting 7 days after germination for nitrogen feeding.

Zinc and sulfur supplies:

1. Apply 25 kg of zinc sulphate per hectare, together with the necessary amount of manure and fertilizer based on the soil test.

2. It will be more helpful to use sulfur-containing fertilizers (single super phosphate). If superphosphate is not used, the amount of gypsum used is 2.50 q. It is more cost effective to do it per hectare. Other sulfur-containing fertilizers can be used in addition.
Chemical fertilizers should not be used on the seeds.

What is the best way to manage manure or fertilizer?

Chemical fertilizers should only be used on the basis of a soil test when it comes to fertilizer management.
Nadep manure with chemical fertilizers, cow dung containing a maximum of organic resources (10-20 t/ha), or vermi compost containing 5 t/ha. Make use of the.
Use a 20:60 – 80:40:20 balanced chemical fertilizer dose under balanced chemical fertilizer management (Nitrogen: Phosphor: Potash: Sulphur).
Place the necessary amount of fertilizer in the field before the last plowing and thoroughly mix it into the soil.
Use 50 kg of urea per demand with a thread starting 7 days after germination for nitrogen feeding.

Intercropping(अंतर्वर्ती खेती)

Depending on the climate zone, use intercrops like soybean & tur (4:2), soybean & maize (4:2), soybean & jowar (4:2), and soybean & cotton (4:1).

Crop circle(फसल चक्र )

Use a soybean-wheat, soybean-mustard crop rotation instead of continuous soybean gram.

Weed Control in the Soybean Crop: The following methods can be used to control weeds in the soybean crop:
1. Traction Technique
2. The Method of Mechanics
3. Using Chemicals

Mechanical method(यांत्रिक विधि)

Keep the crop awake till it is 30-45 days old. Thread/kulpe should be run after the crop has developed for this.

Control with chemicals

Useful before sowing (PPI): Fluchloralene and trifluralene can be applied to suppress weeds before planting soybeans. It has a capacity of 2.22 liters per hectare, which can be used.
In the immediate aftermath of sowing (PI): Farmers can use Metallochlor (2.00 l./ha), Clomazone (2.00 l./ha), Pendimethalin (3.25 l./ha), and Diclosulum (26 g/ha) for weed management after sowing.
Imagathipar (1 L/ha), Quijalophap Ethyl (1 L/ha), Phenaxifap-p-Ethyl (0.75 L/ha), and Helaxifap (135 ml/ha) are used for weed management in 15 to 20 days crop.

Water Conservation Measures

After sowing with a simple seed drill, build a kund through a furrow opener after 5-6 rows. While running the string, deepen the empty pool. When there is a lot of rain, this will result in drainage, and when there isn’t a lot of rain, it will result in water conservation. Use pavdi with your seed drill to save water and get the right number of seedlings.

Pests and Diseases in Soybeans Crop Protection

Remove the injured and damaged plants and bury them in the soil outside the field using integrated pest management methods such as neem oil and light traps. Spraying insecticides requires 7-8 tanks (15 liters per tank) per bigha or 500 l/ha. It is critical to conserve water at a cost of Rs.

A. Biological management

  • put ‘J’ shaped peg In the field 20-25 / ha.
  • Use 10-12 pheromone traps per hectare.
  • To detect insect infestations, use light traps.

B.

  • blue beetle
    Chlorpyriphos/Cunalphos 1.5 liters per hectare
  • girdle beetle
    trizophas 0.8 l/ha. or ethofenprax 1 l/ha. or thiocloprid 0.75 l/ha
  • Tobacco caterpillar and hairy caterpillar
    Chlorpyrifos 20 EC 1.5 l/o or indoxacarb 14.5 sp. 0.5 l/ha or Renexiper 20 sc. 0.10 l/ha
  • semilooper caterpillar
    Bacillus urchinensis / Beauveria bassiana 1 liter for biological control. or kg/ha.
  • gram worm and tobacco worm
    Biological control – HANPV 250 LE/ha for gram caterpillar. and SLNPV for Tobacco caterpillar 250 LE/ha. or Bacillus urchinensis / Beauveria bassiana 1 kg/ha.
    Renexipyr 0.10 l/ha for chemical control. or propanophos 1.25 l/ha. or endoxacarb 0.50 l/ha. or lemda cyhalothrin 0.3 l/ha. or spinosad 0.125 l/ha.
Read more :How do you go about roof farming? Save the environment while increasing your income

Interdisciplinary Disease Management (IDM)

Disease management is a method in which all available disease control methods are combined, and the disease is controlled through deep plowing in the summer, balanced fertilizer management, variety selection, sowing time, seed rate, and seedling number, water management, and disease-affected crop residue. Weed control, crop rotation, intercropping, and the use of resistant cultivars are all options for removing collateral and alternate host plants.

Leaf spot and blight

Spray carbendazim or thiophanate methyl 0.05: (50 g/100 l of water) solution every 35-40 days to suppress leaf spot and blight.

Bacterial backbone

For disease control, choose disease resistant types as NRC-37. When symptoms of the disease are noticed, spray Kasugamycin 0.2: (2 g/L) solution.

Geruwa (गेरूआ)

It’s a fungal disease that appears in clusters on the lower surface of the leaves during the flowering stage, with small needle-tip shaped mushy brown and reddish brown spots rising from the surface. The patches have a yellow tint to them. The leaves generate a brown powder when puffed.
use disease resistant varieties like JS20-29 or NRC86.
Spray Hexaconazole or propiconazole, 800 mL/ha, under chemical control.

Charcoal Root

It’s a fungal infection. The plant’s roots decay and dry up as a result of this disease. From the ground, the upper half of the plant’s stem turns reddish brown. The plants wither when the leaves turn yellow. In the outer layer of the sick stem and root parts, there are numerous tiny black colored sclerosia.

Disease tolerant varieties like Js. 20-34 & JS 20-29, JS 97-52, nrc. Use 86.

Treat with Thirum carboxin 2:1 at a rate of 3 gm/kg seed or Trichoderma virdi at a rate of 5 gm/kg seed under chemical control.

Anthracnose and pod scorch(एन्थ्रेक्नोज व फली झुलसना)

  • It’s a disease spread by seeds and soil. On the stem, petiole, and pods of soybeans during the flowering stage, irregularly shaped crimson to dark brown dots emerge. Later, these areas are covered in black fungus (Acervuli) formations and little thorn-like structures. Yellowish-brown veins on the leaves, twisting, and shedding are all indications of this illness.
  • Use disease tolerant varieties like NRC 7 and 12.
  • Thiram Carboxin or Captan 3 g/kg should be administered to the seed. Treat it as if it were a seed and sow it.
    If symptoms are present, Spray 2 g/L of Zineb or Mancozeb.

Harvesting and threshing

The loss of grain due to scattering can be reduced by harvesting the crop at the right time.
Harvesting should be done when the pods are at the right stage of ripeness (when the pods change color or when the greenness is completely gone). At the time of harvesting, the seeds should have a moisture level of 14-16 percent.
The crop should be sun-dried for 2-3 days before being threshed slowly (300-400 rpm).
The seeds should be dried thoroughly in the sun and stored for 3 to 4 days after threshing.

Intercropping: In addition to soybean farming, you can plant other crops in that field. Special attention must be paid to time and soil in this case. Depending on the climate zone, use intercrops as Soyabean & Tur (4:2), Soyabean & Maize (4:2), Soyabean & Jowar (4:2), and Soyabean & Cotton (4:1).

Crop rotation is used by farmers:

Crop rotation in the field ensures that the soil’s fertility is preserved. By cultivating pulses, for example, the amount of nitrogen in the soil is reduced. Adopt a soybean-wheat, soybean-mustard crop cycle instead of a continuous soybean gram.

Leave a Comment