Cultivation of turmeric
You will earn a lot of money if you cultivate turmeric in this manner
Turmeric belongs to the gingivarancy family of plants.Curcuma longa is its botanical name. Its origins can be traced back to Southeast Asia. Turmeric has been utilized in many ways since antiquity because of its color, fragrance, and therapeutic benefits.
Turmeric is both bioprotective and destructive since it preserves fibers while also killing microorganisms. It has been employed in all auspicious works in society since ancient times, aside from its therapeutic use.
The best cosmetic products are currently comprised entirely of turmeric. Turmeric contains curcumin, and all origin is derived from it. Turmeric has the most starch of all the spices. Aside from that, it contains 13.1 percent water, 6.3 percent protein, 5.1 percent fat, 69.4% carbohydrate, 2.6 percent fiber, and 3.5 percent mineral salts. Vantin Orange Red Oil makes about 1.3 to 5.5 percent of the product. India is the largest producer of turmeric in the world. Turmeric is exported from India in a variety of forms to Japan, France, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, and Australia.
Turmeric Cultivation Climate
Turmeric is a spice crop that grows between 1200 and 1400 mm in diameter. Rainfall, which is obtained every 100 to 120 rainy days, is very successfully cultivated there. It can be grown up to 1200 meters above sea level, although the optimal height for turmeric production is between 450 and 900 meters. Turmeric is a crop native to the tropics. Turmeric requires a temperature of 30 to 35 degrees Celsius. At the time of germination, the temperature should be between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius. The temperature ranges from 20 to 30 degrees Celsius. Rhizome development and a temperature range of 18 to 20 degrees Celsius. Turmeric can be used to thicken sauces.
Turmeric Cultivation Soil
Turmeric may be cultivated in a variety of soils, but sufficient drainage is required. Its pH should be between 5 and 7.5. Loamy, alluvial, laterite soil with a high organic matter content is ideal for growing turmeric. Soil that has been saturated with water is entirely unsuitable for this.
Species of turmeric
- CL 326 Maidukur: A disease-resistant species with large claws and silky skin that matures in nine months. Turmeric yields 19.3 percent after drying and has a production capacity of 200-300 q/ha.
- CL 327 Thekurpaint has long, smooth, and flat paws. The crop has a 5-month maturation time and a production capability of 200-250 q/ha. 21.8 percent turmeric is obtained after drying.
- Musk: It will be available in a short period (7 months). It has thin, scented paws. Dry turmeric is produced in quantities of 150-200 q/q acre.
- Pitambara: This plant was developed by Rajendra Agricultural University and produces a lot of fruit.
ICAR The following species are suitable for the High Altitude Research Center Potangi (Orissa) developed by M.P.
- Roma: This cultivar takes 250 days to mature. 207 quintal/ha dry turmeric, 31.1 percent oleoresin, 13.2 percent oleoresin, 4.4 percent erosion oil, appropriate for both irrigated and non-irrigated fields.
- Soorma has a 250-day maturation period and yields 290 q/ha. It is suitable to use 24.8 percent dry turmeric, 13.5 percent oleoresin, and 4.4 percent erosion oil.
- Sonali: It will last 230 days and produce 270 QTL/ha. oleoresin 114 percent, dry turmeric 23 percent
Erosion oil has a concentration of 4.6 percent. This caste also includes the Coimbatore-1, 35N, PTS-43, and PCT-8 castes. Apart from it, there are a variety of white turmeric species. Curcuma Amada has been made for medicinal, as well as Curcuma aromatic for cosmetics.
It’s time to start growing turmeric
April and May are the best months to plant turmeric.
Turmeric field preparation and seeding method, as well as rhizome quantity
The soil should be made friable and flat before planting the crop by plowing 4-5 inches of it and patting it down. It is necessary to separate pre-harvest leftovers. Turmeric should be planted at a height of 15 cm. Beds are 30 cm high, one meter broad, and conveniently long (3-4 meters). It should be constructed by separating the bed from the bed. If there is a nematode problem in the field, plastic solarization should be completed in April, and then the beds should be made. Turmeric is grown from the rhizome, with 20 to 25 quintals per hectare being used.
At least 2-3 eyes should be present on each rhizome. Sort and separate the rhizomes affected by rotten, dry, and other diseases by dipping them in 0.25 percent Endofil, M-45 solution for at least 30 minutes, sorting and separating the rhizomes affected by rotten, dry, and other diseases. Keep in mind that tubers of the same weight and size should be planted in a row; otherwise, the plant’s growth may be uneven if little and large rhizomes are planted. 5 cm x 30 cm x 5 cm x 30 cm x 5 cm 20 cms from row to row. Plant while maintaining the rhizome at a safe distance. As a seed, only the mother rhizome should be used. After planting, cover the drain with the earth.
Read more : Cultivation of soybeans – The complete process
Irrigation of turmeric fields
Twenty to twenty-five light irrigations are required for the turmeric crop. In the summer, irrigation should be done every 7 days, and in the winter, every 15 days.
Activities involving manure, fertilizer, mulching, and interaction include:
Turmeric cultivation necessitates the use of a lot of organic fertilizers. The soil should be amended with 25 tonnes of compost or cow dung digested manure per hectare. Fertilizers Made of Chemicals Per hectare, nitrogen is necessary for the amount of 60 kg, sulfur is required in the amount of 30 kg, and potash is required in the amount of 90 kg. At the time of planting, combine the whole amount of Sphur with half the amount of potash in the soil. After 45 days of planting, apply half of the nitrogen, followed by the remaining half of the nitrogen and potash after 90 days of soiling.
Green leaves, dry grass, or another organic barrier layer should be placed over the beds at a rate of 12.5 t/ha after the turmeric is planted. Lay any barrier layer material after spraying the second and third other at a rate of 5 tons per hectare. Weed three or four times because it is planted in the summer, which necessitates a lot of water and encourages weed growth. Irrigation continues even until October, resulting in good yields.
Turmeric intercropping or mixed cultivation: It is grown as a mixed crop with chilies and other crops in the plains, primarily in vegetable crops. Tur, soybean, moong, and urad crops can also be planted. Additional income is obtained as an intercrop in gardens such as mango, jackfruit, guava, chikoo, and banana crop.
Turmeric crop pests and diseases include:
Shoot borer:- Turmeric’s pseudostem (stem) and rhizome are pierced by this bug. As a result of the breakdown of the fibers, the food material in the plants is unable to flow freely and becomes weak and bends. Spraying 0.05 percent dimethoate or phosphamidon on it should be enough to keep it under control.
Soft ware: This is a highly dangerous turmeric sickness. An outbreak of pithiampasin causes this sickness. Its
The epidemic causes the rhizome to decay. Drench the soil with 0.25 percent Indofil M-45 for control. Apply only after treating the rhizome before planting.
Colletotrichum: The fungus Colletotrichum species is responsible for leaf spots. Small elliptical irregular or regular brown spots fall on both sides of the leaves, which eventually turn pale yellow or dark brown. As a precaution, spray a 1 percent Bordeaux mixture 15 days before the disease emergence in September. Do it in the first week of the new year.
Turmeric is collected 7 to 10 months after planting. It is dependent on the sowed species
In most cases, digging takes place between January and March. When the leaves begin to turn yellow and dry from above. Before you start digging, walk around the field and determine which plants are disease-prone, then label them and dig them separately, saving the remainder for next year’s seeds.
After digging, dry the seed material in the shade and clean the soil, among other things. For 30 minutes, soak the rhizomes in a solution containing 0.25 percent MEndofil -45 or 0.15 percent Bavistin and 0.05 percent Malathion. Keep it in the shade to dry. Store turmeric in a shady area that is one meter wide, two meters long, and 30 cm long. Make a large pit. 5 cm of paddy straw or sand on the ground. Place it on the table. Then, by spreading another layer of sand on top, place the turmeric rhizomes and fold the turmeric fold. Cover the pit with earth and smear it with cow dung once it’s full.
Curing Turmeric: After drying the rhizomes of turmeric and scrubbing them off dirt, place them in a pan to boil. Then, in a pan, dissolve it in lime or sodium bicarbonate water. Fill the container with enough water to cover the water. When white foam appears and a weird odor appears, boil it for 45 to 60 minutes, then separate it. Turmeric may now be dried using solar energy. Take it out of the water and set it aside. Whether or not the turmeric has softened after boiling. Only after two days of digging should the water be brought to a boil. Then let it air dry for 10 to 15 days.
Boiled turmeric is placed 5-7 cm in light on a bamboo mat to dry. Apply a generous layer of drying agent. In the evening, keep it covered. The dryer is 60 degrees Celsius after 10-15 days of complete drying. However, it is arid. After drying, the product is obtained.
Turmeric’s outer layer appears rough and peeling when polished. As a result, it is smooth and consistent.
It is handcrafted and polished by guys. It is rubbed by filling sacks with it. Nowadays, polishing drums are manufactured, and they are also polished. One quintal of turmeric can be colored by grinding 1 kg of turmeric, which results in a uniform yellow color from above.
- Turmeric powder is a spice that is used in a variety of dishes.
- Turmeric Oil: Turmeric oil is derived by steam distillation and includes 3 to 5% volatile oil (oil). Turmeric powder is used to extract it. In 8 to 10 hours, the oil will gently drain.
- Turmeric oleoresin: Solvent extraction is used to obtain it. Its cost is determined by the amount of curcumin in it.
Turmeric is used in cooking
1. It is used to add aroma and color to foods such as butter, cheese, and pickles, among others. It aids in appetite stimulation and digestion.
2. It’s also used in the dyeing industry.
3. It’s also utilized in pharmaceuticals.
4. It’s also utilized in the manufacture of cosmetics.