Bihar’s major crops and production areas
Floods have affected the majority of Bihar. Farmers have lost faith in Bihar’s agriculture, yet they are highly concerned about crop yield. Agriculture is very important in Bihar’s economy. Agriculture contributes 18.7% of Bihar’s gross domestic product.
Bihar’s main crops
Rice, wheat, barley, maize, jute, millet, potato, mustard, gramme, khesari, tur, and other crops are the principal crops of Bihar (Bihar ki Pramukh fasal).
Paddy or rice
In Bihar, paddy is produced on most land. The plains of Bihar are thought to be the best for paddy farming. Paddy crops are grown on 43.20 percent of the state’s total gross sown area. In Bihar, paddy crops are known as Aghani, Garma, and Bhadai.
Paddy production in Bihar has grown on average during the last five years. The State Government has made efforts to increase rice production using the Srividhi (Rice Intensification System) and Zero Tillage Method.
Rohtas, Aurangabad, and Kaimur are the top rice-producing districts in Bihar. The highest productivity (2018-2019) was recorded in Rohtas district at 4105 kg per hectare, while the lowest productivity was recorded in Siwan district at 709 kg per hectare.
After rice, wheat is Bihar’s second most important crop. Wheat is cultivated on 27.45 percent of the total sown area in Bihar.
In the Bagmati River’s foothills, the northern part of Bihar is considered to be the most appropriate area for wheat growing. Wheat cultivation necessitates light loamy soil, consistent rainfall, and adequate irrigation.
In Bihar, the maximum wheat productivity (2018-2019) is 3805 kg per hectare in Madhepura district, while the lowest wheat productivity is 1993 kg per hectare in Madhubani district.
Maize is one of Bihar’s most important crops. Or is the most appropriate manure and fodder crop. Which is sown on 8.85 percent of Raj’s Shake’s sown area. Maize cultivation is recommended in areas with a humid environment and sandy loam soil.
Purnia district in Bihar had the highest maize production at 9188 kg per hectare, while Bhojpur district had the lowest at 1378 kg per hectare. Apart from that, Katihar, Purnia, and Araria are among the top maize-producing districts in the country.
Sugarcane is a major cash crop in Bihar, and it provides ample employment possibilities for farmers both in the city and in the countryside. It is grown in locations with a lot of rain, lots of loamy soil, and temperatures of about 26°C.
Only 30% of the sugarcane growing area in Bihar has irrigation infrastructure, and sugarcane productivity in Bihar is high due to heavy water logging during the rainy season.
Patna (65.48 tonnes per hectare) is the only sugarcane-producing district in Bihar, while Bhagalpur (46.14 tonnes per hectare) is the district with the lowest sugarcane production.
After sugarcane, jute is Bihar’s second most important cash crop. Its cultivation necessitates alluvial soil and increased rainfall.
Bihar is India’s second-largest milk-producing state, after Bengal. Supaul, Purnia, Madhepura, and Araria are the top jute-producing districts in Bihar.
Ragi or Manduca
Ragi is primarily planted with Kharif crops. Among others, Darbhanga, Supaul, and Siwan are the primary ragi-producing districts of Bihar.
In the 2017-18 fiscal year, Bihar produced 4.18 tonnes of ragi.
Crop of Pulses
Pulses are harvested during the Ravi and Kharif seasons. Gram, tur, khesari, moong, lentil, and urad are examples of pulse crops.
Patna, Aurangabad, and Nalanda are the top three pulse-producing districts in Bihar, while Sheohar, Gopalganj, and Purnia are the lowest.
The water-air soil in Bihar is ideal for growing a wide range of fruits and vegetables. The output of horticulture crops in Bihar has expanded dramatically in recent years as a result of the deployment of modern technology. The Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, has established a tissue culture facility to encourage higher banana production.
Rajendra Prasad, M.D. In Bihar, the Central Agricultural University and Sabour Agricultural University have developed seven units to promote the development of medicinal mushrooms.
Given the nutritional benefits of makhana, attempts are being undertaken to produce its new species in Bihar, which is the country’s main makhana-producing state.
Production of fruit
Bihar agriculture produces fruits on a vast scale due to the differences in temperature and soil topography. Mango, litchi, guava, banana, pineapple, papaya, and lemon are the most common fruits grown in Bihar. Shahi Litchi and Malda from Muzaffarpur are well-known for their particular flavor.
Muzaffarpur district is the leading producer of litchi in Bihar, whereas Rohtas district has the most guava houses. (As of the 2018-19 academic year)
Bihar’s major crops and production areas
- West Champaran, East Champaran, Rohtas, Buxar, and Arwal are the paddy varieties.
- Muzaffarpur, Khagaria, Saran, Begusarai, and Munger are all in Mecca.
- Gaya, Rohtas, and Darbhanga are the wheat varieties.
- Champaran, Muzaffarpur, and Saran are three types of jute.
- Saharsa, West Champaran, and Purnia are three varieties of barley.
- Muzaffarpur, Saran, and Saharsa are ragi varieties.
- Munger, Patna, and Gaya are all Bajra cities.
- Buxar, Bhojpur, Chana
- Nalanda, Patna, Samastipur, and Saran are all potato varieties.
- Mustard varieties include Muzaffarpur, Saharsa, and Saran.
- Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, and Munger are all in Arhar.
- Bhojpur, Patna, and Gaya are among the Khesari cities.