Bean cultivation and its commercial significance
Beans are a type of vine that grows on which the beans are grown. It is a significant green vegetable. It is green, yellow, and white in colour. Its pods, which come in a variety of sizes, contain medicinal characteristics. As a result, by consuming it, a person can avoid a variety of ailments. Plants from this species are often used to make green manure.
Suitable Soil: The finest soil for farming is a fertile land with good drainage. However, in order to produce a large yield, it should be cultivated in black clay soil with a pH of 6.5. The number should be in the range of 5.5-6.5.
Environment and temperature: A temperate climate is said to be ideal for bean cultivation. Its plants require cold for optimal development, and these plants can withstand winter frost. However, the yield is harmed as a result of the protracted frost. Its plant does not tolerate heat or rain.
Temperatures between 15 and 25 degrees are ideal for cultivation, whereas seeds require a temperature of roughly 20 degrees for germination. Even at 30 degrees in the summer, this plant may readily thrive. However, temperatures higher than this are dangerous.
Improved Bean Varieties
There are numerous bean varieties, each of which is classed according to its yield, suitable environment, and plants.
Shrub variations — This type of plant grows in the form of a bush. The majority of which is grown in mountainous areas.
Swarna Priya has straight, long, flat, delicate pods that are not fibrous. Plants that are green in colour begin to produce pods about 50 days after being transplanted. The yield of this variety is 11 tonnes per hectare.
Arka Sampoorna – The Indian Horticultural Research Institute in Bangalore produced this type. Their plants are free of rust and powdery fungal infections. About 50 to 60 days after transplanting, yield begins. The yield per hectare fluctuates between 8 and 10 tonnes.
Ark Samridhi – The Indian Horticultural Research Institute in Bangalore created this type as well. Green pods with a spherical and elongated shape characterise this cultivar. The rinds are thick. The production per hectare has been estimated to reach as high as 19 tonnes.
Vineyard Variety – The plants of the Beldar varieties are creepers. The majority of them are grown on the plains.
Golden creeper – Its plants have long, thick, fleshy pods that are green in hue. This variety’s plants begin to bear fruit 60 days after transplantation. The yield per hectare is between 12 and 14 tonnes.
Arka Krishna is a cultivar that is utilised to grow early crops. Its vegetation isn’t able to withstand direct sunshine. The fruits occur in clusters and are dark green in hue. Up to 30 tonnes per hectare of production has been discovered.
Read more : Green manure farming: production methods
Weed management and bean planting method
Its seeds can be planted by hand or with a drill. Before planting in the field, seeds should be treated. The seed should be treated with carbendazim, thiram, or cow urine. One hectare can be planted with 85-100 kg of seed.
Planting is done on flats for its cultivation. Its seeds are placed in rows through drills in the plane.
Its seeds are planted in September in the North-Western States, from the end of October to the beginning of November in the North-Eastern states, and in June and July in mountainous areas and during the winter season in South India, depending on the location. She leaves.
Its plants require regular watering. Its seeds should be irrigated as soon as possible after being grown on dry land. After that, until the seed germination, the moisture in the field should be maintained with light irrigation every three to four days. During the growth of the plant, irrigation is required every 20 to 25 days.
Mix 10 to 12 carts of rotting old dung manure in the field before ploughing. Chemical fertilisers using DAP At the time of the last ploughing of the field, about 60 kg per acre should be applied. When the plant begins to flower, use 25 kg of urea per acre with irrigation for a healthy yield.
Both chemical and natural treatments are used to control weeds. Pendimethalin should be sprayed soon after sowing the seed for chemical weed control. Weeding, on the other hand, is a natural method of weed control. In the growing of beans, two hoeings are required; the first should be done 20 days after transplanting, and the second should be done 15 to 20 days following the first.
Illness and its prevention
Bean plants are susceptible to a variety of illnesses.
Stem rot is caused by waterlogging and a virus that infects plants. The influence of which is more obvious during the plant’s germination. Brownish-yellow patches emerge on the plant’s leaves as a result of this illness.
To avoid this disease, carbendazim should be sprayed on the roots of plants.
Mosaic – In this stage, the plant’s leaves begin to shrink and green and yellow spots develop. The plant’s growth is halted as a result of this.
Uproot and destroy the plant, or spray Roger on the plants, to prevent this illness.
Pod borer – The yield suffers more damage as a result of this. The larvae puncture the beans and devour the raw seeds in this illness. As a result, the yield suffers.
Neem decoction should be sprayed on the plants to avoid it. Nuvacran, on the other hand, can be sprayed on plants.
Bean pods are removed before they ripen. It should be harvested in accordance with market demand.
Beans take around three months to grow and reap their benefits. The average output per acre is estimated to be around 15 tonnes. Which has a retail price of up to Rs 30 per kg in the market. As a result, per hectare, an income of up to three lakhs might be earned.